Reflexive skills in the process of learning foreign languagesReflexive skills in the process of learning foreign languages Get Started

Автор статьи: Жанна Б.
Организация: Махамбет Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан университеті
Должность: Студент
This work discusses the use of reflection (self-evaluation, self-analysis) as a tool in foreign language learning and the development of reflective skills in students. The following aspects are also considered in the paper:
  • Advantages and disadvantages of reflection in language classes
  • The role of teachers in this process
  • Levels of student engagement
Reflection is the ability of a person to reflect on themselves, analyze and evaluate their actions and behaviors, and look at themselves from an outsider's perspective[1]. The term "reflexio" in Late Latin means turning back, that is, returning to recent events for the purpose of self-analysis. During the learning process, students develop and realize themselves, analyze their academic successes and failures, understand themselves and their environment, and strive for self-improvement. Reflection is present in academic activities, as well as in any other activities. Reflection is reflected in the subject's ability to constantly improve themselves, relying on mechanisms of self-analysis and self-regulation. It is known that a person receives two types of experience: external and internal. Physical sensory organs are used to obtain external experience, while internal experience is a deep work based on human reflective activity. Reflection serves as the source of inner experience, which is necessary for self-knowledge. By reflecting on their activities, a person evaluates them, that is, produces self-evaluation. Only through self-evaluation can a student generalize the knowledge they have acquired, set goals for further work, and determine their educational path. Reflection implies an examination of already completed activities for the purpose of recording their results and increasing their effectiveness in the future. Based on the results of reflection, one can not only contemplate future activities but also build its realistic structural basis, directly stemming from the peculiarities of the previous activity. Thus, the relevance of the chosen topic lies in its importance and significance in light of new requirements of the federal educational standard, as well as in the need to increase the effectiveness of classes and form a reflective position in students. The research objective is to identify the specifics of the reflective stage of an English language lesson and develop and test effective methods and types of reflection in foreign language lessons. The object of the study is the process of learning a foreign language. The subject of the study is the reflection of learners in foreign language lessons. The research hypothesis is that the reflective stage of the structure of a foreign language lesson will be effective if effective methods and types of reflection are used. To achieve the research objective, the following tasks were identified:
  • To examine the concept of "reflection" and study its types.
  • To identify the structure of a modern English language lesson.
  • To determine the peculiarities of reflection in foreign language lessons.
  • To provide a characterization of the methods of reflection.
  • To conduct experimental work on the use of methods and types of reflection in foreign language lessons and analyze the results obtained.
The research is based on a systemic activity and personality-oriented approach. The theoretical framework of the research is based on the works of A. V. Karpov, I. N. Semenov, S. Yu. Stepanova, and N. I. Gutkina. The following research methods were used:
  • Analysis of literature on the topic of research.
  • Random sampling method.
  • Experimental method.
  • Methods of mathematical data processing.
The practical significance of this work lies in the possibility of applying the research materials in the preparation for lessons both for students during their academic practice and for the professional activity of teachers. The research work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a list of references, and appendices. There are numerous modern methods and approaches aimed at the most effective learning of the English language in order to motivate and develop a child's ability to form skills and desires for learning. The use of this method will have a positive effect on building a trusting relationship between the student and the teacher. Skilful and rational application of reflective methods can become a tool for the teacher to actualize their personal development. Through reflective actions, students consciously set goals for their activities and behaviour, build programs for their implementation, reflect on their needs in the system of accepted values, transform externally set tasks into personally significant ones, and predict the consequences of their actions and decisions. A high level of self-esteem development is related to the student's ability to justify it and actualize the means used to ensure it. As proposed by Oscarson[3], another area that appears to require work in this direction is teacher preparation. The following statement aims to encourage teachers who want to integrate reflection into their practice to develop self-assessment forms, rubrics, and instructions in their native language to assist students with low levels of foreign language proficiency in their understanding. For more advanced students, it may not be necessary to translate the self-assessment instructions into their native language. However, students with low language proficiency require all the help they can get to ensure continuous reflection in learning a new language. According to Blanc and Merino[2], teachers need to try to rephrase, restructure, and add to self-assessment instructions to reflect all aspects of language learning. The authors strongly recommend that educators and researchers take into account the conditions under which reflection is most likely to be successful. Ross[4] recommended the following:
  • Identify the criteria by which students evaluate their work,
  • Teach students how to apply the criteria,
  • Provide students with feedback on their self-assessment,
  • Help students use reflection to improve their performance.
The authors also recommend two additional conditions:
  • Provide sufficient time for checking after self-assessment,
  • Do not turn reflection into a lesson evaluation, counting it as a final grade.
Practice shows that students who have mastered the reflection method tend to be more active in class than those who do not conduct self-analysis during/after the lesson. This work was aimed not at improving the academic performance of students but at the quality of the knowledge obtained. The main goal of the research was to determine effective methods and types of reflection application in foreign language lessons, as well as to consider the overall value of the concept of "reflection", build a structure of the modern English language using reflective skills, and analyze the results obtained. During the experiment, it was revealed that the hypothesis set at the very beginning of the research was confirmed. References:
  1. Линецкий Ю.Л. Философско-психологический анализ проблемы рефлексии // Ежегодник Российского психологического общества Психология в системе наук. - Т. 9. - Вып. 1. М. - 2002. - С.26-27.
  2. Blanche, P., & Merino, B. J. (1989). Self-assessment of foreign language skills: Implications for teachers and researchers. Language Learning, 39(3), 313-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00595.x
  3. Oscarson, M. (1989). Self-assessment of language proficiency: rationale and applications. Language Testing, 6, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/026553228900600103
  4. Ross, J. (2006). The reliability, validity, and utility of self-assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 11(10). Retrieved January 11, 2007, from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?vD11& nD10
This work discusses the use of reflection (self-evaluation, self-analysis) as a tool in foreign language learning and the development of reflective skills in students. The following aspects are also considered in the paper:
  • Advantages and disadvantages of reflection in language classes
  • The role of teachers in this process
  • Levels of student engagement
Reflection is the ability of a person to reflect on themselves, analyze and evaluate their actions and behaviors, and look at themselves from an outsider's perspective[1]. The term "reflexio" in Late Latin means turning back, that is, returning to recent events for the purpose of self-analysis. During the learning process, students develop and realize themselves, analyze their academic successes and failures, understand themselves and their environment, and strive for self-improvement. Reflection is present in academic activities, as well as in any other activities. Reflection is reflected in the subject's ability to constantly improve themselves, relying on mechanisms of self-analysis and self-regulation. It is known that a person receives two types of experience: external and internal. Physical sensory organs are used to obtain external experience, while internal experience is a deep work based on human reflective activity. Reflection serves as the source of inner experience, which is necessary for self-knowledge. By reflecting on their activities, a person evaluates them, that is, produces self-evaluation. Only through self-evaluation can a student generalize the knowledge they have acquired, set goals for further work, and determine their educational path. Reflection implies an examination of already completed activities for the purpose of recording their results and increasing their effectiveness in the future. Based on the results of reflection, one can not only contemplate future activities but also build its realistic structural basis, directly stemming from the peculiarities of the previous activity. Thus, the relevance of the chosen topic lies in its importance and significance in light of new requirements of the federal educational standard, as well as in the need to increase the effectiveness of classes and form a reflective position in students. The research objective is to identify the specifics of the reflective stage of an English language lesson and develop and test effective methods and types of reflection in foreign language lessons. The object of the study is the process of learning a foreign language. The subject of the study is the reflection of learners in foreign language lessons. The research hypothesis is that the reflective stage of the structure of a foreign language lesson will be effective if effective methods and types of reflection are used. To achieve the research objective, the following tasks were identified:
  • To examine the concept of "reflection" and study its types.
  • To identify the structure of a modern English language lesson.
  • To determine the peculiarities of reflection in foreign language lessons.
  • To provide a characterization of the methods of reflection.
  • To conduct experimental work on the use of methods and types of reflection in foreign language lessons and analyze the results obtained.
The research is based on a systemic activity and personality-oriented approach. The theoretical framework of the research is based on the works of A. V. Karpov, I. N. Semenov, S. Yu. Stepanova, and N. I. Gutkina. The following research methods were used:
  • Analysis of literature on the topic of research.
  • Random sampling method.
  • Experimental method.
  • Methods of mathematical data processing.
The practical significance of this work lies in the possibility of applying the research materials in the preparation for lessons both for students during their academic practice and for the professional activity of teachers. The research work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a list of references, and appendices. There are numerous modern methods and approaches aimed at the most effective learning of the English language in order to motivate and develop a child's ability to form skills and desires for learning. The use of this method will have a positive effect on building a trusting relationship between the student and the teacher. Skilful and rational application of reflective methods can become a tool for the teacher to actualize their personal development. Through reflective actions, students consciously set goals for their activities and behaviour, build programs for their implementation, reflect on their needs in the system of accepted values, transform externally set tasks into personally significant ones, and predict the consequences of their actions and decisions. A high level of self-esteem development is related to the student's ability to justify it and actualize the means used to ensure it. As proposed by Oscarson[3], another area that appears to require work in this direction is teacher preparation. The following statement aims to encourage teachers who want to integrate reflection into their practice to develop self-assessment forms, rubrics, and instructions in their native language to assist students with low levels of foreign language proficiency in their understanding. For more advanced students, it may not be necessary to translate the self-assessment instructions into their native language. However, students with low language proficiency require all the help they can get to ensure continuous reflection in learning a new language. According to Blanc and Merino[2], teachers need to try to rephrase, restructure, and add to self-assessment instructions to reflect all aspects of language learning. The authors strongly recommend that educators and researchers take into account the conditions under which reflection is most likely to be successful. Ross[4] recommended the following:
  • Identify the criteria by which students evaluate their work,
  • Teach students how to apply the criteria,
  • Provide students with feedback on their self-assessment,
  • Help students use reflection to improve their performance.
The authors also recommend two additional conditions:
  • Provide sufficient time for checking after self-assessment,
  • Do not turn reflection into a lesson evaluation, counting it as a final grade.
Practice shows that students who have mastered the reflection method tend to be more active in class than those who do not conduct self-analysis during/after the lesson. This work was aimed not at improving the academic performance of students but at the quality of the knowledge obtained. The main goal of the research was to determine effective methods and types of reflection application in foreign language lessons, as well as to consider the overall value of the concept of "reflection", build a structure of the modern English language using reflective skills, and analyze the results obtained. During the experiment, it was revealed that the hypothesis set at the very beginning of the research was confirmed. References:
  1. Линецкий Ю.Л. Философско-психологический анализ проблемы рефлексии // Ежегодник Российского психологического общества Психология в системе наук. - Т. 9. - Вып. 1. М. - 2002. - С.26-27.
  2. Blanche, P., & Merino, B. J. (1989). Self-assessment of foreign language skills: Implications for teachers and researchers. Language Learning, 39(3), 313-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00595.x
  3. Oscarson, M. (1989). Self-assessment of language proficiency: rationale and applications. Language Testing, 6, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/026553228900600103
  4. Ross, J. (2006). The reliability, validity, and utility of self-assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 11(10). Retrieved January 11, 2007, from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?vD11& nD10