Инновационные методы обучения английского языка [Английский язык]

Автор статьи : Алтынай Б.
Организация : Оңтүстік Қазақсатн көпсалалы колледжі
Должность : Ағылшын тілі пәнінің оқытушысы, директордың тәрбие ісі жөніндегі орынбасары
Дата : 08.01.2019
INNOVATIONAL METHODS OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGES Abstract: In this article the author examines the innovational methods of teaching English in schools. It shows how this method can affect the role of the teacher and the student in practical classes. This method develops mental ability of the student that allows to analyze the learning process.  Keywords: innovational methods, secondary school, valuable teaching aid, motivation, educational practice, approach to education, communication skills, learning experience. Ключевые слова: инновационные методы, средняя школа, ценное учебное пособие, мотивация, учебная практика, подход к образованию, коммуникативные навыки, опыт обучения.   In the world English is an international language. Nowadays English is by far the most widely used. Learning English in the secondary school needs general principles where every pupils and teachers must follow to it. Broadly, English is likely to be taught in tree types of situation at secondary level. The teacher may be dealing with a class of students who are learning English solely because the school system demands it, with anything between one and five periods a week to contend with, and very little strong motivation. Alternative students may be quite strongly motivated in foreign languages situations, perhaps they anticipate having to use it for university level work, or because there is an obvious role for English is to play in the community outside school. Usually with classes of this kind the teacher has quite a number of periods, between three and eight, say, to use every week. Finally, three is the situation in which English is a medium for all or part of the instruction in the school. In circumstances like this the teacher is obviously able to develop more advanced work than in the other two situations. In classroom management and organization the same principles apply to all three types of situations, but the appropriative goals each course will vary according to its type. The characteristic secondary school class is large (anything upwards of twenty five students), and because of its size, it usually reflected a wide range of ability. Some would say that it is also characteristically unmotivated for had in learning a language, and it is certainly true that there are situations in the world in which the reasons for learning English are not self-evident, so that students may well feel less commitment to language work than to say geography or physics. The school cannot overcome single handed problems which arise from administrative decisions, and if the wrong languages are being taught to the wrong people in the wrong size of class for the wrong periods of time, it is not the teacher or the pupils who should be blamed for the failure of the system to produce fluent English sparkers. But at the same time there are many ways in which the teacher can make the best of the situation that hi is faced with, especially if he bears in mind that there is no teacher in the world who is satisfied with the conditions which he is asked to teach in. the teacher’s duty sure that this his teaching is appropriative to his class. That is organized systematically, and that it is exiting. These three features interlock with each other, but it is worth nothing that, while the first two are easiest to attain, they are probably less often pursued than excitement. Yet a teacher who uses appropriative and well organized materials usually has little difficulty in generating enthusiasm in his class. Let us examine each of these ideas in a little more detail. How should we teach grammar? Do we need to teach it at all? Here are two rather different approaches:
  1. a) divided the world of the English languages up into manageable bite sized chunks, and then introduce these to the students, one chunk per lesson, so that they gradually and systematically accumulate a complete of the language. B) create an environment where a lot of language , known and unknown, is met (mainly when doing speaking and listening task) and where the student are helped with new language only when they already have some curiosity or questions about it.
Both the above represent how some teachers work with grammar in class. Many teachers I know regularly do both. In the first approach, we need a methodology that finds ways to “present” or “input” small pieces of language that have previously been selected by the teacher exemplify particular structures. Each new item will then be practiced until the students are familiar with it, revised at future dates and eventually incorporated into the larger body of languages that has previously been presented and practiced. This is sometimes called “PPP” (presentation. Practice, production). I can plan the lesson. But how can I plan a day, a month, and a term? There are two main considerations: What will I teach (i.e. what is the syllabus?) How will the separate items be sequenced (i.e. what is the timetable)? A syllabus provides a longer term overview. It lists the contents of a course and puts the separate items in an order. In some school the syllabus may simply be the course book get to unit 17 half terms. In others there may be a much more detailed requirement. A syllabus can be mainly grammatical or functional or lexical. Alternatively, it may be based on skills work (e.g. speaking and listening), or it may contain a mixture of work on systems and skills. Some syllabuses describe course content in terms of topics or tasks. Having syllabus can be a great help, setting out clearly what you as a teacher are expected to cover with your class. It can be a burden, too, if it is unrealistic for your students in terms of what they need or are likely to achieve within a certain time. The day today, week to week decisions about how to interpret a syllabus into a series of lessons are usually wholly or partly the teacher’s job. This process typically involves you looking at a school syllabus or a course book contents page and typing to map out how you will cover the content in the time available to you, in selecting items from the syllabus and writing them into appropriate spaces on a plan. This is a timetable your translation of the syllabus requirements into a balanced and interesting series of lessons. Timetable is usually written out in advance (some school required them months ahead) and usually by the time “main” teacher of a class. In some places a head of department or director of studies may provide you with a pre written timetable, though this is unusual. A timetable also enables other teachers to understand what work is being done in your class. The information it provides may be especially important if another teacher shares your class with you, if you are ill or absent one day, or if your director is concerned about your class any way. It is also useful for your students to know what they will be doing. The timetable should give others a clear idea of what work was planned for a particular lesson and also show how that fits into the overall shape of the week and the course. A good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. A major aim of most teaching programmers is to help students to gain a large vocabulary of useful words. In every lesson, you have to introduce new words and practice them, making clear the meanings and the ways each can be used. In the page that follow you will learn how to introduce vocabulary, how to practice it in a variety of ways and how to revise it. There are two main ways to present (introduce) vocabulary. You can either show the meaning in some way or you can use language that the students already know in order to make clear the meaning of the new lexical item. There is a third way, too, but one that is little used. You can present meanings through sounds. This third way is also described, as it offers yet another approach to the problem of introducing difficult words. During most lessons, you will use both of the first two ways. There are several techniques that may be used, whether you are working linguistically or ostensively. Some words are very easy to present (nouns, verbs, adverbs, and abjectives). Some are more difficult because they present abstract notions. Yet other words have no independent meaning, and so they cannot be presented in the same ways. The most valuable teaching aid, worldwide, is a blackboard or other good writing and drawing surface. Sketches, diagrams and table enable teachers to avoid excessive use of the mother tongue, while prompting meaningful oral contributions from the students. In many ways, a blackboard it is apparent that their attention is on what the teacher has written or drawn. Blackboards are sometimes neglected, so much so that the chalk is scarcely visible to the class. Washing them with a sponge helps, but if the surface is worn there is only one thing to do. You must by a tin paint and renew it. Blackboard paint is cheap and easy to apply and dries in an hour. There is a choice between black and a restful green color. The organization of pair work or group work is a management task, but one which presents no real difficulties. However, in many societies a teacher centered approach to education is the norm. To introduce a pedagogy which is in conflict with current educational practice may be difficult at first. And yet, if pedagogy is to be effective is should be in learners to interact with others, at easy and conversing reasonably fluently. Therefore, teachers must offer practice in speaking and the communicating. To engage in interaction, the students need to talk to each other. In teacher centered classes, there just is not enough time for everyone to make a significant contribution. If we disregard the new chorus responses in a drill, the average student in a large class will probably only speak for a total of 10 or 15 seconds. Extra time for talking can only be gained if they all talk at the same time for parts of the lesson. You may imagine that to have all the students talking at the same time will be a noisy business. This is not case. A repetition drill is far noisier than simultaneous pair work. When learners talk to an immediate neighbor they tend to speak quietly. The effect is of a continuous murmuring; it is good noise, a learning noise. Teacher who have never before relinquished total control have to adopt new attitudes, thinking more about the learning experience. And their pedagogical role is quite different during these new lesson phases. During pair work the teacher has two roles. One is to act as monitor, listening to a few of the pairs and nothing any persistent errors. Pair work will receive attention another time, perhaps at the start of the next lesson. The second role is that of resource person, providing help, information and feedback upon request. Through games, learners practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures. Motivation is enhanced, too, by the play and the competition. An added benefit is that learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. They acquire language unconsciously, with their whole attention engaged by the activity, in much the same way as they acquired their mother tongue. Information gap activities are dealt with in another chapter. Here we are concerned with simple games that require little preparation but can be used for the revision and practice of various language points. Useful though these games are as time fillers, they are effective teaching learning instruments. They a proper place in your lesson plants, two or three times weekly. We begin by looking at letter and number games. Then we move on to word games before looking at games that involve speech, rather than single words.   Литература
  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.
3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994. 4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009  References
  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.
3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994. 4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009