Economy of Kazakhstan

Ағылшын тілі
Economy of Kazakhstan

Мақала авторы: Almas Oskenbayev
Жұмыс орны: Institute of Intelligent Technology
Лауазымы: Professor
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 26.07.2016


The economic potential of Kazakhstan is defined by rich reserves of natural resources, vast agricultural lands, developed labour and other resources.

Almost all chemical elements of Mendeleyev’s table can be found in the depths of the country. According to the results of geological and economic evaluation of the available mineral resources of Kazakhstan, of the greatest economic importance are coal, oil, copper, iron, lead, zinc, chromite, gold and manganese. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals mined in Kazakhstan are

exported to Japan, South Korea, the USA, Canada, Russia, China and countries of EU.

If we look at the economic map of Kazakhstan we can divide it into five industrial sectors. The north of Kazakhstan is mainly rural.  Here we can find well-cultivated fields and the pastures. Kazakhstan is the major producer of wheat, which is grown primarily in the north. Cereal crops, including durum wheat, barley, and oat, cattle breeding and dairy – farming are important branches of this sector. Agricultural producers that often give the state millions of tons of grain significantly support the economy of the country. Besides, there are enterprises of food, light and heavy industries in this area as well as engineering and production of agricultural mechanisms.

The south of the country is famous for growing vegetables and fruits. Other crops including rice and cotton are grown on the irrigated lands as well. Livestock farming is presented by sheep breeding, dairy and meat cattle breeding, camel and horse breeding. Besides, the chemical industry is well-developed in this region. The textile, light and food industries as well as oil refining and production of building materials play the important role in the development of this region.

West of the country is well-known for its significant oil and gas reserves, allowing to rank the Republic’s largest oil producers in the world. Tengiz and Kashagan oil fields contain 88 percent of Central Asia’s oil wealth. Recent exploration confirmed that these deposits are extensive, which has prompted several international corporations to form joint ventures with Kazakh partners to exploit local petroleum resources. Refining capacity, which does not meet domestic demand, is scheduled for rapid expansion. By 2015 the production of oil will be increased and as a result Kazakhstan will enter the top ten largest oil-producing countries of the world. The main source of budget revenues is the export of oil and oil products. Ship-building is a new branch of industry.

East of the country is the centre of the electric power production. Power sources are Ekibastuz coal fields and hydroelectric power stations which are constructed on the rivers of the Eastern Kazakhstan. There are some plants of the ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, engineering and automobile industry. In farming the cultivation of fodder and such technical crops as sunflower and flax takes place. There is also a fruit-growing, hemp-growing and bee-growing.

The Central Kazakhstan is the main region of the development of the mining industry and non-ferrous metallurgy. Coal is actively mined in the Karaganda coal fields. The key industries are ferrous metallurgy, machine building, light, and textile and food industries. The main direction in the live-stock belongs to the meat and dairy cattle breeding. The agriculture is presented by cultivation of the cereal and fodder crops.

VOCABULARY:

  1. reserves запасы
  2. depths недра
  3. rural сельский
  4. ferrous and non-ferrous metals черные и цветные металлы
  5. pastures пастбища
  6. cereal crops зерновые культуры
  7. grain зерно
  8. cattle breeding животноводство
  9. enterprises предприятия
  10. light industry легкая промышленность
  11. heavy industry тяжелая промышленность
  12. engineering машиностроение
  13. irrigated lands орошаемые земли
  14. oil refining очистка нефти
  15. to rank котироваться, ставить в ряд
  16. to meet the demand отвечать требованию
  17. rapid expansion быстрое распространение
  18. joint venture совместное предприятие
  19. power энергия
  20. mining горнодобывающая промышленность

EXERCISES: I. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is of the greatest economic importance in Kazakhstan?
  2. How do the agricultural producers support the economy of the country?
  3. What is the south of the country famous for?
  4. Where are the significant oil and gas reserves concentrated?
  5. What are power sources does the country have?
  6. What are the key industries in the Central Kazakhstan?

II. Find the English equivalents from the text.

  1. богатыми запасами полезных ископаемых
  2. согласно результатам геологической и экономической оценки
  3. поделить на пять промышленных секторов
  4. основной производитель зерна
  5. также, как и машиностроение
  6. животноводство представлено
  7. разрабатывать местные нефтяные запасы
  8. основной источник дохода
  9. выращивание кормовых и технических культур 10. уголь активно добывается
  • Say what you have learned about:
1. North of Kazakhstan 2. South of Kazakhstan 3. West of Kazakhstan 4. East of Kazakhstan 5. Centre of Kazakhstan

  REFERENCES

  1. Almas Oskenbayev, English Topics: Practical manual, — Saarburg: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2015.
  2. Gulnara Azhibekova, Almas Oskenbayev, English — Russian Geological Dictionary (2000 entries approx): Practical manual, — Madison: Institute of Intellegent Technology, 2016.

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