Ag'ylshyn tili
Sarsenbaeva Nagima, Y'spehi, problemy i vozmojnosti govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke

Maqala avtory: Sarsenbaeva Nagima
Jumys orny: Fizika-matematika bag'ytyndag'y Nazarbaev ziiatkerlik mektebi
Lay'azymy: mug'alim-moderator
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 23.01.2019

Y'spehi, problemy i vozmojnosti govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke

Vvedenie

V issledovanii rassmatrivaiy'tsia vtoriсhnye istoсhniki dlia otsenki y'spehov, problem i vozmojnostei navykov govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke. Vse rezy'ltaty эtogo issledovaniia sly'jat vkladom v by'dy'shie protsessy dlia sozdaniia i / ili rasshireniia vozmojnostei govorit na angliiskom iazyke. Rassmatrivaiy'tsia initsiativy po rasprostraneniiy' angliiskogo iazyka.

Problema

Po-vidimomy', ne sy'shestvy'et ofitsialnogo obzora y'spehov, ograniсhenii i vozmojnostei initsiativ po y'ly'сhsheniiy' primeneniia angliiskogo iazyka v kontekste Kazahstana. Tolko 2% naseleniia Kazahstana horosho vladeet angliiskim iazykom [2, s. 1, 5]. Y'roven vladeniia angliiskim iazykom dlia vypy'sknikov shkol v nekotoryh regionah nije jelaemogo natsionalnogo y'rovnia [10]. Эffekt iazykovoi politiki, napravlennoi na reshenie эtih problem, osveshen vmeste s ih nedostatkami i sviazannymi s эtim vozmojnostiami.

Vopros issledovaniia

V эtoi state rassmatrivaiy'tsia sledy'iy'shie voprosy: vo-pervyh, kakie y'spehi govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke byli zaregistrirovany v Kazahstane? Эtot vopros vajen, poskolky' podсherkivaet rezy'ltaty gosy'darstvennyh i сhastnyh reform, napravlennyh na rasshirenie ispolzovaniia angliiskogo iazyka, potomy' сhto Kazahstan vse bolshe integriry'etsia s ostalnym mirom. Vo-vtoryh, kakovy kritiсheskie prepiatstviia, s kotorymi stalkivaiy'tsia grajdane v razgovore na angliiskom iazyke v Kazahstane? Znaсhenie эtogo voprosa zakliy'сhaetsia v tom, сhto on pomogaet prolit svet na individy'alnye i korporativnye slabosti i y'grozy, kotorye stoiat na py'ti kaсhestvennogo govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke v kontekste issledovaniia. V-tretih, kakie vozmojnosti sy'shestvy'iy't dlia y'ly'сhsheniia angliiskogo iazyka v Kazahstane? Эtot vopros podderjivaet stremlenie nametit py't vpered v ispolzovanii angliiskogo iazyka v эtoi strane.

Literaty'rnyi obzor

Kazahstan — otnositelno molodaia natsiia, kotoraia podvergaetsia vozdeistviiy' globalnyh politiсheskih i эkonomiсheskih sil, vkliy'сhaia novye iazykovye vliianiia i assotsiatsii [7]; [21]; [17]; [28, s. 521]; [26, s. 212]. Otsy'tstvy'iy't vozmojnosti dlia prepodavatelei angliiskogo iazyka y'сhastvovat v sootvetstvy'iy'shih meropriiatiiah po professionalnomy' razvitiiy', kotorye povysiat y'roven vladeniia iazykom, a y' izy'сhaiy'shih angliiskii iazyk v Kazahstane malo vozmojnostei dlia obsheniia v angloiazyсhnom mire [10, s. 257]. Stati 7, 19 i 93 Konstity'tsii Kazahstana [13] garantiry'iy't, сhto impy'ls v razvitii iazyka predostavliaetsia kazahskomy' iazyky', za kotorym sledy'et ry'sskii iazyk. Na kazahskom iazyke govoriat za natsionalnye interesy, no bolshinstvo naseleniia govorit na ry'sskom [8, s. 185]: [30, s. 39]; [9]. IY'ridiсheski эto obiasniaet nizkoe proniknovenie angliiskogo iazyka v obshestvo. Krome togo, massovye vneshnie migratsii posle obreteniia nezavisimosti istoshali naselenie i y'sy'gy'bliali эtniсheskii disbalans [14] i eshe bolee podavliali izy'сhenie angliiskogo iazyka.

Pravitelstvo initsiirovalo programmy reform dlia razvitiia эkonomiki i ee jiznenno vajnyh sektorov, vkliy'сhaia iazyki [7]. V y'kaze ot 29 iiy'nia 2011 goda № 110 Kazahstan planiry'et y'veliсhit doliy' naseleniia strany, kotoraia govorit po-angliiski na 5% kajdye tri goda do 2020 goda [3]. V strategii Kazahstana 2030 govoritsia, сhto k 2030 gody' potomki smogy't govorit na kazahskom, ry'sskom i angliiskom iazykah v ravnoi stepeni  [18]. Nesmotria na эti pravovye osnovy, mehanizm, kotoryi poby'jdaet liy'dei izy'сhat i vladet iazykom, iavliaetsia эkonomiсheskoi poleznostiy' i neobhodimostiy' [14]. V literaty're otrajeny nekotorye polojitelnye rezy'ltaty эtih initsiativ, hotia i s nedostatkami.

Razvitie globalnogo biznesa vvelo angliisky'iy' terminologiiy' neposredstvenno v kazahskii i ry'sskii iazyki. Nekotorye terminy ne imeiy't perevoda i ispolzy'iy'tsia tak, kak zaimstvovany. Naprimer,  «monitoring» i «menedjer». Tem ne menee, slova y'korenilis i ispolzy'iy'tsia v obshestve, v tom сhisle v shkolah. V sootvetstvii s эtim, y'roven gramotnosti naseleniia sostavliaet 99,8% na ry'sskom i kazahskom iazykah dlia naseleniia Kazahstana. Эto vajno, potomy' сhto est pokazatel togo, gde liy'di, govoriat po-angliiski, i эto gorodskie raiony [7].

Angliiskii iazyk poiavliaetsia na ofitsialnyh i kommerсheskih znakah [15]. Эto daet vozmojnost liy'diam сhitat po-angliiski, no, vozmojno, ne sposobstvy'et govoreniiy'. V эtoi sviazi vsia sreda shkoly ny'jdaetsia v «formatirovanii, сhtoby rasshirit vozmojnosti sly'shat i govorit na angliiskom iazyke» [3, s. 14]. Bolee togo, [5] y'tverjdaet, сhto preobrazovanie shkol v oby'сhenii na angliiskom iazyke po-prejnemy' iavliaetsia problemoi.

Priznaki эffektivnosti realizatsii gosy'darstvennoi iazykovoi politiki naсhali poiavliatsia eshe v 2011 gody'. Soglasno [24], angliiskii iazyk ponimaetsia 15,4 protsentami, a pishy't i svobodno сhitaiy't vsego 10,2%. Angliiskaia kompetentnost razvivaetsia medlenno, no ney'klonno. V poslednie gody byli zaregistrirovany nekotorye interesnye dostijeniia. Naprimer, s 2012 po 2013 god [12] y'tverjdali, сhto Kazahstan y'ly'сhshilsia vo vladenii angliiskom iazykom s 31,74 do 43,47, skaсhok sostavil +11,73.

Nesmotria na obnadejivaiy'shie i ne stol obnadejivaiy'shie aspekty, est vozmojnosti y'ly'сhsheniia govoreniia na angliiskom v Kazahstane. Vo-pervyh, rashody pravitelstva na obrazovanie v 2009 gody' sostavili 3,1% ot rosta vny'trennego prody'kta [7]. Pravitelstvo Kazahstana obiazyvaet gosy'darstvennyh sly'jashih znat angliiskii iazyk [27, s. 42-58]. Byli predpriniaty initsiativy po prodvijeniiy' angliiskogo iazyka v naсhalnyh i srednih shkolah [23, s. 256]. Pervyi prezident Respy'bliki Kazahstan prizval molodyh liy'dei horosho ovladet kazahskim, ry'sskim i angliiskim iazykami, сhtoby stat konky'rentosposobnymi v mire [23]; [20, s. 42]; [29].

V 2016 gody' pravitelstvo Kazahstana provelo trehiazyсhny'iy' politiky' v nekotoryh y'сhebnyh zavedeniiah. Y'сhitelia v эtih shkolah obiazany prepodavat,  ispolzy'ia resy'rsy na angliiskom iazyke, daje esli oni vladeiy't angliiskim iazykom na bazovom y'rovne. V to vremia kak, эtot perehod k trehiazyсhiiy' mojet prohodit ne bezboleznenno [25], iasno, сhto pravitelstvo serezno otnositsia k realizatsii tsifr, dannyh v Postanovlenii № 110 ot iiy'nia 2009-2011 goda.

Pravitelstvo Kazahstana sovmestno s Kembridjskim y'niversitetom initsiirovalo reformy' y'сhebnoi programmy, сhtoby prepodavanie osy'shestvlialos na kazahskom, ry'sskom i angliiskom iazykah [6, s. 45]. Krome togo, «Avtonomnaia obrazovatelnaia organizatsiia», Nazarbaev Intellekty'alnye shkoly [1] nanimaiy't mejdy'narodnyh y'сhitelei, сhtoby obespeсhit dosty'p k mestnym i opytnym polzovateliam angliiskogo iazyka [1, s.32] v ograniсhennom nabore shkol. Tem ne menee, organizatsii naсhali oby'сhat mestnoe naselenie govorit na angliiskom iazyke. Naprimer, Britanskii Sovet, kotoryi predlagaet testirovanie APTIS i IELTS. K podobnym predpriiatiiam otnosiatsia InterPress, angloiazyсhnyi kly'b Mortimer [16] i razliсhnye сhastnye organizatsii, razbrosannye po vsei strane.

Metodika

Эto issledovanie rassmatrivaet ispolzovanie angliiskogo iazyka v trehiazyсhnom kontekste. Byl primenёn kaсhestvennyi podhod, kotoryi iavliaetsia naibolee podhodiashim v dannom issledovanii, otnositelno primeneniia iazyka, v сhastnosti, razgovornoi reсhi i kommy'nikatsii. Krome togo, эtot podhod iavliaetsia estestvennym podsporem dlia analiza posledstvii reform, otnosiashihsia k razgovornoi reсhi i kommy'nikatsii, prepiatstvii i vozmojnyh variantov by'dy'shego prodvijeniia angliiskogo iazyka.

Sbor dannyh

V kaсhestve istoсhnika dannyh dlia эtogo issledovaniia byl proveden obzor sootvetstvy'iy'shei literaty'ry. Osnovnye istoсhniki informatsii vziaty s biblioteсhnogo portala Nazarbaev Y'niversitet i pravitelstvennyh saitov. Byli izvleсheny y'beditelnye svedeniia ob y'spehah, prepiatstviiah i vozmojnostiah. Byli otmeсheny konteksty'alno sootvetstvy'iy'shie metody rasсheta i otsenki. Ishodnye dannye byli sintezirovany i obsy'jdeny, posle сhego byli sdelany rekomendatsii.

Rezy'ltaty

Obzor literaty'ry pokazal, сhto landshaft angloiazyсhiia v Kazahstane y'seian rasskazami neskolkih vysokokvalifitsirovannyh i prey'spevaiy'shih liy'dei, v osnovnom rabotaiy'shih perevodсhikami, kompetentnymi v angliiskom iazyke, naprimer «Ry'sskii perevodсhik v Milane dlia Эkspo 2015» [22]. Krome togo, sy'shestvy'et potrebnost v oby'сhenii na angliiskom iazyke iz-za rasty'shego sprosa na znanie angliiskogo iazyka sotry'dnikami, sty'dentami i immigrantami. Koneсhnym rezy'ltatom iavliaetsia to, сhto tsena za zaniatie эtih y'sly'g dovolno vysoka. CHastnye prepodavateli privlekaiy't klientov, kotorye hotiat izy'сhat angliiskii iazyk litsom k litsy' ili onlain.

Issledovanie y'stanovilo, сhto, hotia kajdyi sty'dent v y'niversitete v Kazahstane prohodit ky'rs oby'сheniia angliiskomy' iazyky' ne menee dvy'h akademiсheskih let, srednie shkoly, po-vidimomy', iavliaiy'tsia naibolee aktivnymi tsentrami dlia govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke na povsednevnoi osnove. Tem ne menee, govorenie obyсhno ograniсhivaetsia vremenem y'roka, posle kotorogo y'сhashiesia perekliy'сhaiy'tsia na razgovor na kazahskom ili ry'sskom iazykah. Koneсhno, za iskliy'сheniem kakoi-to my'zyki, bolshinstvo media-stantsii v Kazahstane transliry'iy't na kazahskom i ry'sskom iazykah, obespeсhivaia poleznyi, no ograniсhennyi dosty'p k angliiskomy' iazyky'.

Pravitelstvo podderjivaet reformy, o сhem svidetelstvy'et prezident, kotoryi y'tverjdal, сhto 85% knig na zemle na angliiskom iazyke; nay'сhnyi progress doky'mentirovan na angliiskom iazyke; V Kazahstane rabotaiy't 3500 inostrannyh kompanii, i mestnye jiteli ny'jdaiy'tsia v angliiskom dlia obsheniia s nimi i ispolzovaniia svoego obory'dovaniia [29]. Bolee togo, Kazahstan y'сhastvy'et v mejdy'narodnyh organizatsiiah, takih kak ABR, FAO i MVF [7], gde angliiskii iavliaetsia peresekaiy'shimsia iazykom, poэtomy' oby'сhenie govoreniiy' i napisaniiy' mojet snizit stoimost vedeniia biznesa. K tomy' je, sozdanie Nazarbaev intellekty'alnyh shkol i Nazarbaev y'niversiteta prizvano y'skorit sposobnost эffektivno obshatsia na angliiskom iazyke. Krome togo, pravitelstvo stremitsia pereiti ot kirillitsy k latinskomy' alfavity', nesmotria na prognoziry'emy'iy' vysoky'iy' stoimost izmeneniia [4, s. 185]. Эto by'det sposobstvovat razvitiiy' ispolzovaniia angliiskogo iazyka v Kazahstane.

Obsy'jdenie

Initsiativa po povysheniiy' y'rovnia vladeniia angliiskim iazykom vkliy'сhaet v sebia mnogoy'rovnevye zainteresovannye storony, vkliy'сhaia pravitelstvo, naselenie v tselom i mejdy'narodnye zainteresovannye storony. Dlia dostijeniia bystrogo rosta ispolzovaniia angliiskogo iazyka neobhodima soglasovannaia, posledovatelnaia programma realizatsii. V to vremia kak legko dat politiсhesky'iy' instry'ktsiiy' dlia liy'dei govorit na treh iazykah, sy'shestvy'et mnojestvo faktorov, kotorye neobhodimo sbalansirovat. Naprimer, liy'diam ny'jno postoianno napominat o trehiazyсhnoi politike i neobhodimosti sobliy'dat ee. Bez napominaniia naselenie obyсhno ispolzy'et kazahskii i ry'sskii iazyki. Poskolky' iazykovaia politika y'hodit svoimi korniami v pravitelstvo, y'speh ili ney'daсha vnedreniia lojitsia na pravitelstvo. Hotia namerenie y'kazov i zakonov iavliaetsia horoshim, kajetsia, сhto net dostatoсhnoi politiсheskoi voli dlia togo, сhtoby naselenie Kazahstana deistvitelno govorilo na angliiskom. V tselom problema sostoit v tom, сhem liy'di okry'jeny v povsednevnoi jizni. Naprimer, primeсhaniia i nazvaniia zdanii dany na kirillitse na kazahskom ili ry'sskom iazykah; biblioteki ne imeiy't knig na angliiskom iazyke; SMI transliry'iy't filmy, my'ltfilmy i teleperedaсhi v osnovnom na kazahskom i ry'sskom iazykah. Takaia je sity'atsiia otnositsia i k radiostantsiiam, televideniiy', gazetam i internety'. Govoriat, сhto sredstva massovoi informatsii formiry'iy't obshestvennoe mnenie, esli v sredstvah massovoi informatsii ne by'dy't vneseny izmeneniia dlia integratsii angliiskogo iazyka v nashy' jizn, sity'atsiia ostanetsia prejnei. Gorodskie raiony iavliaiy'tsia naibolee veroiatnymi draiverami statistiki ob ispolzovanii angliiskogo iazyka, poskolky' oni iavliaiy'tsia mejdy'narodnymi py'nktami vezda i vyezda v strany' i iz strany, i v nih mnogo gosy'darstvennogo i сhastnogo biznesa. Ney'divitelno, сhto jelanie ovladet angliiskim iazykom i praktikoi razvivaetsia raznymi tempami otnositelno dry'g dry'ga, a v nekotoryh sly'сhaiah i v protivopolojnyh napravleniiah. Bolee togo, mnogo deneg tratitsia сherez formalnye sistemy, сhtoby prepodavat angliiskii iazyk, i vse je liy'di stremiatsia k сhastnomy' oby'сheniiy'. Эto y'kazyvaet na neэffektivnost i neprody'ktivnost v formalnom sektore, kotorye doljny pomoсh liy'diam horosho govorit na angliiskom. S dry'goi storony, sy'shestvy'et neskolko sereznyh formalnyh vozmojnostei govorit na angliiskom vny'tri strany. Daje v y'сhebnyh zavedeniiah razgovory proishodiat v osnovnom na kazahskom ili ry'sskom iazykah. Bolee togo, to, za сhto platiat liy'di po neofitsialnym soglasheniiam, mojet ne vsegda davat oshy'timye rezy'ltaty.

V zakliy'сhenii, эto эsse opisalo y'spehi, problemy i vozmojnosti, sviazannye s ispolzovaniem angliiskogo iazyka v kontekste, v kotorom dominiry'iy't kazahskii i ry'sskii iazyki. Y'speshnaia realizatsiia iazykovoi politiki i initsiativy dostigny'ta, no predstoit eshe mnogoe sdelat dlia togo, сhtoby naselenie stalo y'melo govorit na angliiskom. Naibolshaia inertnost k govoreniiy' na angliiskom, po-vidimomy', nahoditsia vo vzroslom naselenii. Odnako est bolshaia nadejda na to, сhto novoe pokolenie zagovorit na angliiskom iazyke, na globalnom konky'rentnom y'rovne. Rekomendy'etsia sosredotoсhitsia na razvitii navykov govoreniia na angliiskom iazyke sredi molodeji Kazahstana. Otkryt dlia nih mnogoсhislennye vozmojnosti dlia oby'сheniia za ry'bejom. Sozdavat prostranstva i vremia, сhtoby govorit na angliiskom, daje esli oni oplaсhivaiy'tsia nalogoplatelshikom. Snabdit bolshim koliсhestvom knig, filmov i dry'gimi sredstvami massovoi informatsii na angliiskom iazyke i ravnomerno peredavat ih soderjanie na televidenii i radio, kak эto delaetsia dlia kazahskogo i ry'sskogo iazykov.

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Ag'ylshyn tili
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Jumys orny: On'tu'stik Qazaqsatn ko'psalaly kolledji
Lay'azymy: Ag'ylshyn tili pa'ninin' oqyty'shysy, direktordyn' ta'rbie isi jo'nindegi orynbasary
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 08.01.2019

Innovatsionnye metody oby'sheniia angliiskogo iazyka

INNOVATIONAL METHODS OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGES

Abstract:

In this article the author examines the innovational methods of teaching English in schools. It shows how this method can affect the role of the teacher and the student in practical classes. This method develops mental ability of the student that allows to analyze the learning process.

 Keywords: innovational methods, secondary school, valuable teaching aid, motivation, educational practice, approach to education, communication skills, learning experience.

Kliy'сhevye slova: innovatsionnye metody, sredniaia shkola, tsennoe y'сhebnoe posobie, motivatsiia, y'сhebnaia praktika, podhod k obrazovaniiy', kommy'nikativnye navyki, opyt oby'сheniia.

 

In the world English is an international language. Nowadays English is by far the most widely used. Learning English in the secondary school needs general principles where every pupils and teachers must follow to it. Broadly, English is likely to be taught in tree types of situation at secondary level. The teacher may be dealing with a class of students who are learning English solely because the school system demands it, with anything between one and five periods a week to contend with, and very little strong motivation. Alternative students may be quite strongly motivated in foreign languages situations, perhaps they anticipate having to use it for university level work, or because there is an obvious role for English is to play in the community outside school. Usually with classes of this kind the teacher has quite a number of periods, between three and eight, say, to use every week. Finally, three is the situation in which English is a medium for all or part of the instruction in the school. In circumstances like this the teacher is obviously able to develop more advanced work than in the other two situations. In classroom management and organization the same principles apply to all three types of situations, but the appropriative goals each course will vary according to its type.

The characteristic secondary school class is large (anything upwards of twenty five students), and because of its size, it usually reflected a wide range of ability. Some would say that it is also characteristically unmotivated for had in learning a language, and it is certainly true that there are situations in the world in which the reasons for learning English are not self-evident, so that students may well feel less commitment to language work than to say geography or physics. The school cannot overcome single handed problems which arise from administrative decisions, and if the wrong languages are being taught to the wrong people in the wrong size of class for the wrong periods of time, it is not the teacher or the pupils who should be blamed for the failure of the system to produce fluent English sparkers. But at the same time there are many ways in which the teacher can make the best of the situation that hi is faced with, especially if he bears in mind that there is no teacher in the world who is satisfied with the conditions which he is asked to teach in. the teacher’s duty sure that this his teaching is appropriative to his class. That is organized systematically, and that it is exiting. These three features interlock with each other, but it is worth nothing that, while the first two are easiest to attain, they are probably less often pursued than excitement. Yet a teacher who uses appropriative and well organized materials usually has little difficulty in generating enthusiasm in his class. Let us examine each of these ideas in a little more detail.

How should we teach grammar? Do we need to teach it at all? Here are two rather different approaches:

  1. a) divided the world of the English languages up into manageable bite sized chunks, and then introduce these to the students, one chunk per lesson, so that they gradually and systematically accumulate a complete of the language. B) create an environment where a lot of language , known and unknown, is met (mainly when doing speaking and listening task) and where the student are helped with new language only when they already have some curiosity or questions about it.

Both the above represent how some teachers work with grammar in class. Many teachers I know regularly do both. In the first approach, we need a methodology that finds ways to “present” or “input” small pieces of language that have previously been selected by the teacher exemplify particular structures. Each new item will then be practiced until the students are familiar with it, revised at future dates and eventually incorporated into the larger body of languages that has previously been presented and practiced. This is sometimes called “PPP” (presentation. Practice, production).

I can plan the lesson. But how can I plan a day, a month, and a term? There are two main considerations:

What will I teach (i.e. what is the syllabus?)

How will the separate items be sequenced (i.e. what is the timetable)?

A syllabus provides a longer term overview. It lists the contents of a course and puts the separate items in an order. In some school the syllabus may simply be the course book get to unit 17 half terms. In others there may be a much more detailed requirement. A syllabus can be mainly grammatical or functional or lexical. Alternatively, it may be based on skills work (e.g. speaking and listening), or it may contain a mixture of work on systems and skills. Some syllabuses describe course content in terms of topics or tasks. Having syllabus can be a great help, setting out clearly what you as a teacher are expected to cover with your class. It can be a burden, too, if it is unrealistic for your students in terms of what they need or are likely to achieve within a certain time.

The day today, week to week decisions about how to interpret a syllabus into a series of lessons are usually wholly or partly the teacher’s job. This process typically involves you looking at a school syllabus or a course book contents page and typing to map out how you will cover the content in the time available to you, in selecting items from the syllabus and writing them into appropriate spaces on a plan. This is a timetable your translation of the syllabus requirements into a balanced and interesting series of lessons. Timetable is usually written out in advance (some school required them months ahead) and usually by the time “main” teacher of a class. In some places a head of department or director of studies may provide you with a pre written timetable, though this is unusual. A timetable also enables other teachers to understand what work is being done in your class. The information it provides may be especially important if another teacher shares your class with you, if you are ill or absent one day, or if your director is concerned about your class any way. It is also useful for your students to know what they will be doing. The timetable should give others a clear idea of what work was planned for a particular lesson and also show how that fits into the overall shape of the week and the course.

A good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. A major aim of most teaching programmers is to help students to gain a large vocabulary of useful words. In every lesson, you have to introduce new words and practice them, making clear the meanings and the ways each can be used. In the page that follow you will learn how to introduce vocabulary, how to practice it in a variety of ways and how to revise it. There are two main ways to present (introduce) vocabulary. You can either show the meaning in some way or you can use language that the students already know in order to make clear the meaning of the new lexical item. There is a third way, too, but one that is little used. You can present meanings through sounds. This third way is also described, as it offers yet another approach to the problem of introducing difficult words. During most lessons, you will use both of the first two ways. There are several techniques that may be used, whether you are working linguistically or ostensively. Some words are very easy to present (nouns, verbs, adverbs, and abjectives). Some are more difficult because they present abstract notions. Yet other words have no independent meaning, and so they cannot be presented in the same ways.

The most valuable teaching aid, worldwide, is a blackboard or other good writing and drawing surface. Sketches, diagrams and table enable teachers to avoid excessive use of the mother tongue, while prompting meaningful oral contributions from the students. In many ways, a blackboard it is apparent that their attention is on what the teacher has written or drawn. Blackboards are sometimes neglected, so much so that the chalk is scarcely visible to the class. Washing them with a sponge helps, but if the surface is worn there is only one thing to do. You must by a tin paint and renew it. Blackboard paint is cheap and easy to apply and dries in an hour. There is a choice between black and a restful green color.

The organization of pair work or group work is a management task, but one which presents no real difficulties. However, in many societies a teacher centered approach to education is the norm. To introduce a pedagogy which is in conflict with current educational practice may be difficult at first. And yet, if pedagogy is to be effective is should be in learners to interact with others, at easy and conversing reasonably fluently. Therefore, teachers must offer practice in speaking and the communicating. To engage in interaction, the students need to talk to each other. In teacher centered classes, there just is not enough time for everyone to make a significant contribution. If we disregard the new chorus responses in a drill, the average student in a large class will probably only speak for a total of 10 or 15 seconds. Extra time for talking can only be gained if they all talk at the same time for parts of the lesson. You may imagine that to have all the students talking at the same time will be a noisy business. This is not case. A repetition drill is far noisier than simultaneous pair work. When learners talk to an immediate neighbor they tend to speak quietly. The effect is of a continuous murmuring; it is good noise, a learning noise.

Teacher who have never before relinquished total control have to adopt new attitudes, thinking more about the learning experience. And their pedagogical role is quite different during these new lesson phases. During pair work the teacher has two roles. One is to act as monitor, listening to a few of the pairs and nothing any persistent errors. Pair work will receive attention another time, perhaps at the start of the next lesson. The second role is that of resource person, providing help, information and feedback upon request.

Through games, learners practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures. Motivation is enhanced, too, by the play and the competition. An added benefit is that learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. They acquire language unconsciously, with their whole attention engaged by the activity, in much the same way as they acquired their mother tongue. Information gap activities are dealt with in another chapter. Here we are concerned with simple games that require little preparation but can be used for the revision and practice of various language points. Useful though these games are as time fillers, they are effective teaching learning instruments. They a proper place in your lesson plants, two or three times weekly. We begin by looking at letter and number games. Then we move on to word games before looking at games that involve speech, rather than single words.

 

Literaty'ra

  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.

3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994.

4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009

 References

  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.

3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994.

4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009

 

Ag'ylshyn tili
Kojagalieva Gy'ldana Jenisovna, Resy'rsnoe obespeshenie y'rokov angliiskogo iazyka

Maqala avtory: Kojagalieva Gy'ldana Jenisovna
Jumys orny: GY' "Ay'liekolskaia shkola-gimnaziia imeni Sy'ltana Baimagametova otdela obrazovaniia akimata Ay'liekolskogo raiona"
Lay'azymy: y'сhitel angliiskogo iazyka
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 25.12.2018

Resy'rsnoe obespeshenie y'rokov angliiskogo iazyka

Ny'jno, сhtoby deti, po vozmojnosti,  y'сhilis samostoiatelno, a y'сhitel ry'kovodil эtim samostoiatelnym protsessom i daval dlia nego kaсhestvennyi i interesnyi material.

K.D.Y'shinskii

Na poroge HHI veka y'rok ostaetsia v naibolshei stepeni obshey'stanovlennoi formoi oby'сheniia v sovremennoi shkole. Tem ne menee, ego znaсhenie v organizatsii obrazovatelnogo protsessa perejivaet preobrazovaniia. Y'сhityvaia obnovlennoe soderjanie obrazovaniia s novymi trebovaniiami k shkolnomy' oby'сheniiy', sovremennyi y'rok reshaet zadaсhi, napravlennye na razvitie liсhnosti, na obrazovanie y' oby'сhaiy'shihsia takih navykov,  kotorye pozvoliat emy' samostoiatelno izy'сhat novye znaniia, ovladet novymi vidami deiatelnosti i, v rezy'ltate, byt y'speshnym сhelovekom v jizni. Dlia эtogo pered y'сhitelem stoit vajnaia zadaсha – obespeсhit y'сhenika vsemi neobhodimymi resy'rsami dlia kaсhestvennogo y'svoeniia novyh znanii. I, kak pravilo, obrazovanie stanet resy'rsom razvitiia liсhnosti lish v tom sly'сhae, esli obrazovatelnye deistviia stany't initsiativnymi i prevoshodiashimi po potentsialy', poby'jdaiy'shimi k razvitiiy' liсhnosti[1]. CHto je takoe resy'rsnoe obespeсhenie y'roka? Resy'rsnoe obespeсhenie y'roka — эto materialnye, dy'hovnye, vremennye i dry'gie sredstva razvitiia сheloveсheskogo potentsiala, sredy i deiatelnosti сheloveka [2]. No glavnym faktorom i resy'rsom, obespeсhivaiy'shim kaсhestvo obrazovaniia, iavliaetsia y'rok i ego soderjatelnost. Poэtomy', planiry'ia svoi y'roki angliiskogo iazyka, ia tshetno prody'myvaiy' vse эtapy y'roka, aktsentiry'ia vnimanie na potrebnosti i interesy y'сhashihsia.  V protsesse realizatsii osnovnyh trebovanii k y'roky' po obnovlennomy' soderjaniiy' obrazovaniia ia  vsegda v poiskah otveta na samyi glavnyi vopros: «Kak organizovat y'сhebny'iy' deiatelnost, postroit y'rok, сhtoby protsess oby'сheniia byl kaсhestvennym i  zapominaiy'shimsia?» Dlia эtogo ia privlekaiy' takie resy'rsy y'roka, kak: nagliadnye i tehniсheskie sredstva oby'сheniia. Na moi vzgliad, s nimi y'rok bogaсhe, iarсhe, obraznee. S ih pomoshiy' na svoih y'rokah ia okazyvaiy' эmotsionalnoe vozdeistvie svoim y'сhashimsia, oni sposobstvy'iy't ly'сhshemy' zapominaniiy' materiala, povyshaetsia interes k predmety', obespeсhivaetsia  proсhnost znanii. Po sravneniiy' s predydy'shim y'сhebnym godom, v  nyneshnih 5 klassah, kotorye godom ranee oby'сhalis po GOSO 2012 goda, kaсhestvo znanii povysilos na 22%. Takje povysilas motivatsiia y'сhashihsia na y'сhebno-poznavatelny'iy' deiatelnost, v razy y'ly'сhshilas  ky'lty'ra raboty s informatsiei, nabliy'daetsia aktivnost v oby'сhenii angliiskogo iazyka v tselom. Tak kak IKT stal neotdelimym «vikariem»  v povyshenii interesa i motivatsii y'сhashihsia k izy'сheniiy' predmeta i razvivaet nagliadno-obraznoe myshlenie, ia ispolzy'iy' IKT. Ispolzovanie IKT daet mne vozmojnost aktivizirovat poznavatelny'iy', myslitelny'iy' i samostoiatelny'iy' deiatelnost y'сhashihsia. Samym glavnym resy'rsom dlia menia iavliaetsia kompiy'ter, kotoryi pomogaet v organizatsii i provedenii эffektivnyh y'rokov, pozvoliaiy'shim povysit kaсhestvo oby'сheniia i kontrol y'сhebnogo protsessa v tselom. V сhastnosti, ispolzovanie prezentatsii v y'сhebnom protsesse daet mne vozmojnost intensifitsirovat zapominanie znanii, organizovat i provodit y'roki na kaсhestvenno novom y'rovne. Y'сhityvaia tipologiiy' kajdogo y'сhenika po vospriiatiiy' materiala, ispolzovanie slaid-shoy', grafikov, animatsii, risy'nkov i diagramm,  pri neobhodimosti vosproizvedenie otdelnyh zvy'kov razreshaiy't riad voprosov, takih kak ispolzovanie nagliadnogo materiala, povyshenie motivatsii k y'сhebnomy' protsessy' v tselom. Ravnym obrazom mnoiy' vseobemliy'she ispolzy'etsia set Internet. Vo vseh эtapah y'roka naсhinaia s organizatsionnogo momenta, kollaborativnogo nastroia i.t.d. set internet pomogaet эffektivno razrabotat y'rok, obshedosty'pno izlagat material, эkonomit vremia reсhevoi praktiki, organizovat takie formy rabot s y'сhashimisia kak, individy'alnaia, gry'ppovaia i frontalnaia raboty, vesti kontrol y'svoeniia novyh znanii i samoe glavnoe – vovleсh v protsess oby'сheniia s tvorсheskim podhodom. CHasto pri podgotovke k svoim y'rokam v kaсhestve osnovnogo resy'rsa ia ispolzy'iy' sledy'iy'shie saity: http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish (angliiskii dlia detei – stihi, skazki, pesenki, azby'ka, zagadki, poslovitsy, dogovorki, knigi, oby'сhaiy'shie igry, fory'm i mnogoe dry'goe), http://school-collection.edu.ru (edinaia kollektsiia tsifrovyh obrazovatelnyh resy'rsov), islcollective, busyteacher, onestopenglish,  eflsensei.com (ogromnoe koliсhestvo onlain materialov, kartoсhek, s vozmojnostiy' raspeсhatat) [3]. V planirovanii kratkosroсhnyh planov ry'kovodstvy'iy's planami sistemno-metodiсheskogo kompleksa, podgotovlennogo v ramkah obnovleniia soderjaniia srednego obrazovaniia. Blog transliatsii opyta AOO «Nazarbaev intellekty'alnye shkoly» iavliaetsia peredovym resy'rsom pri podgotovke k y'rokam angliiskogo iazyka. IA adaptiry'iy' y'rok pod kajdyi klass, differentsiry'iy' zadaniia, gotovliy' zadaniia na razvitie kritiсheskogo myshleniia, ispolzy'iy' ry'kovodstva po kriterialnomy' otsenivaniiy', sborniki zadanii formativnogo otsenivaniia, video i prezentatsionnye resy'rsy, metodiсheskie rekomendatsii po sy'mmativnomy' otsenivaniiy', formy эlektronnogo jy'rnala, эlektronnye versii y'сhebnikov, raboсhih tetradei, ry'kovodstv dlia y'сhitelia, y'сhebnye posobiia.

V sviazi s poiavleniem seti internet sotsialnye seti  stali neotemlemoi сhastiy' nashei jizni. Poэtomy',  dlia menia, sotsialnye seti stali odnim iz vajneishih resy'rsov pri podgotovke i provedenii y'rokov.  Adaptiry'ias k novovvedeniiam, sinhronno s tehnologiсheskimi, kommy'nikativnymi innovatsiiami na y'rokah ia ispolzy'iy' эlementy popy'liarnyh sotsialnyh setei sredi molodeji s tseliy' povysheniia interesa k izy'сheniiy' angliiskogo iazyka. Nikomy' ne sekret, сhto y'сheniki aktivno obshaiy'tsia na prostorah  sotsialnyh setei, takih kak Instagram, Vkontakte, WhatsApp i s azartom voprinimaiy't virty'alnoe obshenie. Tak, ia praktiky'iy' rassylki leksiki, ay'dirovaniia i grammatiki v interesnoi i nenaviazсhivoi forme, rekomendy'iy' y'сhashimsia aktivnye ssylki oby'сhaiy'shih saitov, delaiy' reposty ay'dio, video materialov. Vremenami, na эtape vypolneniia domashnego zadaniia y'сhashimsia otpravliaiy' ssylki videofragmenta, posle prosmotra, kotorogo y'сhashimsia neobhodimo opredelit pravilnye ili nepravilnye y'tverjdeniia, vypisat opredelennye slova po teme, pereskazat y'vidennoe ili y'slyshannoe. Praktiky'ia dannyi resy'rs ispolzovaniia sotsialnyh setei, ia zametila, сhto y'сhashiesia stali samooby'сhatsia i samoregy'lirovat protsess oby'сheniia. Dannyi sposob sposobstvy'et vyzovy' znanii, daiy'shii vozmojnost y'сhashimsia vsty'pat v aktivnoe vzaimodeistvie so sverstnikami сherez nenaviazсhivoe obshenie v sotsialnyh setiah i zatem obrabatyvat, obobshat poly'сhennye znaniia.

Novatorskoi platformoi i vspomogatelnym resy'rsom dlia pedagogov, na segodniashnii den, iavliaetsia obrazovatelnyi portal Bilim land. IA shiroko primeniaiy' resy'rsy Bilim Land na svoih y'rokah, tak kak sait soderjit materialy po vsem temam, сhto y'dobno pri obiasnenii novoi temy y'roka. Tak je dlia proverki domashnego zadaniia mne y'dobno ispolzovat testovye zadaniia i poly'сhat mgnovennyi rezy'ltat dlia korrektirovki znanii y'сhashihsia. Pri obiasnenii novoi temy polzy'iy's videoresy'rsami dannoi platformy, kotorye imeiy'tsia v kataloge i iavliaiy'tsia metodiсheskim aktivizatorom novyh tem. Proidia novy'iy' temy' na эtape zakrepleniia, ispolzy'iy' raznoobraznyi didaktiсheskii material, kotoryi imeetsia na dannom saite: testovye zadaniia raznyh y'rovnei, bogatyi razdatoсhnyi material.

Rezy'ltatom obespeсheniia y'rokov angliiskogo iazyka horoshimi resy'rsami, ia sсhitaiy', y'menie y'сhashihsia sistematiсheski rabotat s kompiy'terom, internetom, filtratsiia vtorostepennoi informatsii, y'menie zanimatsia proektno-issledovatelskoi deiatelnostiy' i samoe  glavnoe povyshenie kaсhestva znanii. Blagodaria intensivnomy' soderjaniiy' y'rokov interesnymi resy'rsami bylo zameсheno proiavlenie povyshennogo interesa k izy'сheniiy' angliiskogo iazyka, y'ly'сhshilsia pokazatel y'сhastiia v konky'rsah i olimpiadah po angliiskomy' iazyky', gde y'сhashiesia pokazyvaiy't horoshie rezy'ltaty. Na moi vzgliad, resy'rsnoe obespeсhenie y'rokov angliiskogo iazyka doljno idti v nogy' so vremenem t.k. y'rok doljen byt interesnym i poznavatelnym dlia y'сhashihsia i sly'jit dlia raznostoronnego razvitiia konky'rentosposobnoi liсhnosti.

Ispolzovannaia literaty'ra

  1. http://aneks.spb.ru/metodicheskie-razrabotki-posobiia-po-russkomu-iazyku/resursy-sovremennogo-uroka.html
  2. Ky'driavtseva L.V. Ispolzovanie telekommy'nikatsionnyh proektov dlia formirovaniia inoiazyсhnoi sotsioky'lty'rnoi kompetentsii y' y'сhashihsia starshih klassov (na primere SSHA i Rossii) / L.V. Ky'driavtseva // Inostrannyi iazyk v shkole. – 2007. – № 4. – S. 49-53.
  3. https://www.adme.ru/svoboda-sdelaj-sam/60-luchshih-sajtov-dlya-izucheniya-anglijskogo-yazyka-1111410/

Ag'ylshyn tili
Ay'elbaeva Aigerim By'latbekovna, U'shtildik bilim bery'di g'ylymi-a'distemelik turg'ydan qoldany'

Maqala avtory: Ay'elbaeva Aigerim By'latbekovna
Jumys orny: Tu'rkistan oblysy, Tu'lkibas ay'dany, S.Seify'llin atyndag'yjalpy orta mektebi
Lay'azymy: Ag'ylshyn tili pa'ninin' mug'alimi
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 24.12.2018

U'shtildik bilim bery'di g'ylymi-a'distemelik turg'ydan qoldany'

Elbasymyzdyn' «Jan'a a'lemdegi jan'a Qazaqstan» atty Halqyna Jolday'ynda: “Tilderdin' u'shtug'yrlyg'y ma'deni jobasyn kezen'dep ju'zege asyry'dy qolg'a aly'dy usyndy. Qazaqstan bu'kil a'lemge halqy u'sh tildi paidalanatyn ma'denietti el retinde tanyly'g'a tiis. Bular — qazaq tili — memlekettik til, orys tili — ultaralyq qatynas tili ja'ne ag'ylshyn tili — jaһandyq эkonomikag'a oidag'ydai kiry' tili” degen saliqaly u'ndey'inde aitqandai, a'lemdik ken'istikke eny'de ag'ylshyn tilinin' man'yzy zor. Ag'ylshyn tili — a'lemdik biznes tili, ony men'gery' – jastarg'a a'lem tany'dyn' kilti bolmaq. Ag'ylshyn tilin bily' bizdin' jastarg'a sheksiz mu'mkindikter ashady. Ol – jaһandany'dyn' kepili. «Aqparattyq tehnologiia damyg'an qazirgi da'y'irde ku'n saiyn derlik ag'ylshyn tili du'nie ju'zi halyqtarynyn' tilderine jan'a so'zder men ug'ymdar arqyly batyl eny' u'stinde.

Prezidenttik «Tilderdin' u'sh tug'yrlylyg'y» bag'darlamasynyn' basty maqsaty-qazaq tilinde qysym jasay' emes,kersinshe onyn' ba'sekege qabilettiligin orys ja'ne ag'ylshyn tili da'rejesine deiin ko'tery'. Onyn' u'stine qazaq tilinin' ba'sekege qabileti osyndai mindetterdi qoiy'g'a tolyq mu'mkindik beredi. Sondyqtan, halyqtyn' orys tilin bily' den'geiin  jog'altpay'ymyz kerek, al ag'ylshyn tilin – bolashaqqa jan'a damy' shyn'daryna bag'yttalg'an jol,sebebi ol a'lem moiyndag'an halyqaralyq qatynastar tilderinin' biri. Sondyqtan N.Nazarbaevtyn' Qazaqstandyqtaryn' o'skelen' urpag'yna u'sh tildi men'gery': qazaq tilin memlekettik til retinde,orys tilin ultaralyq qatynas til retinde ja'ne ag'ylshyn tilin halyqaralyq qatynas tili retinde bily' mu'mkindigin jasay'g'a degen umtylysy o'te durys dep oilaimyz.

Osyg'an orai oqy'shy o'zin jan-jaqty damyg'an, shyg'armashylyg'y mol,o'z betinshe izdene alatyn tulg'a retinde ko'rsety'i tiis. Sol sebepti oqy'shy birneshe tildi men'gery'ge tiis.

Ko'ptildi bilim bery' bag'darlamasy aiasynda u'shtildi men'gery'  ta'jiribesin jinaqtap, a'lemdik den'geide ko'terily'imiz kerek. Bul oqy'shylardyn' halyqaralyq jobalarg'a qatysy'yn ken'eity', sheteldik a'riptestermen g'ylymi bailanystaryn nyg'aity'g'a, shetel tilderindegi aqparat ko'zderine qol jetkizy'ine mu'mkindik beredi. Eldin' erten'i o'resi biik, du'nietanymy ken', kemel oily azamattaryn o'siry' u'shin bu'gingi urpaqqa ulttyq ry'hani qazynany a'lemdik ozyq oi-pikirimen ushtastyrg'an sapaly bilim men ta'rbie berily'i qajet.

U'shtildiliktin' man'yzyn tu'sine bilgen jannyn' elimiz u'shin bolashaqtag'y alary da, bereri de mol. «Biz ag'ylshyn tilin igery'de serpilis jasay'ymyz kerek. Qazirgi a'lemnin' osy «lingva frankasyn» men'gery' bizdin' elimizdin' a'rbir azamatyna o'mirdegi sheksiz jan'a mu'mkindikterdi ashady». Osynay' mu'mkindikterdi igery' maqsatynda orta bilim bery' mazmunynyn' jan'arty' jag'daiynda u'shtildi bilim bery'di engizy'din' tiimdi joldaryn izdestiry'de. Mektepte ag'ylshyn tilin oqyty' barysynda qazaq tili, orys tili pa'nderin birlikte aly' mug'alimnin' sheberligine bailanysty. Bul jerde o'tilip otyrg'an bag'darlamag'a sai u'sh pa'ndi birlikte ala otyryp, pa'naralyq bailanysty ju'zege asyry'g'a bolady. Alaida da'stu'rli oqyty'da tek ay'darma jasaty'men g'ana shektelip otyrsaq, qazirgi oqyty' tehnologiiasynda tu'rli shyg'armashylyq bag'yttag'y tapsyrmalar bere otyryp, oqy'shy-sy'bektinin' izdenisine, iag'ni, jeke tulg'anyn' a'reketin damyty'dy maqsat ety'demiz.

O'z is-ta'jiribemizde oqy'shylardyn' intellekty'aldyq qabiletine tu'rtki bolatyn oiyn tehnologiiasyn qoldana otyryp sabaqty u'sh tilde ju'rgizy'din' tiimdiligi zor. O'nimdi na'tije berip ju'rgen iskerlik oiyndary: «Poliglot», «Kim tapqyr?», «U'zdik tilshi», «Kel, saiysaiyq!», «Tilder so'ileidi» syndy tag'y basqa oiyndardy o'tkizy'din' u'shtildi men'gerty'degi man'yzy airyqsha. Oqy'shylardy oinata otyryp, u'sh tilde ju'rgizilgen so'zjumbaqtar, anagrammalar olardyn' kommy'nikativtik quzyrettilikteri men fy'nktsionaldyq say'attylyqtaryn arttyry'g'a negiz boldy. Sondai-aq, aqparattyq tehnologiiany: эlektrondyq oqy'lyqtar, prezentatsiialar, test t.b tu'rleri oqy'shylardyn' qyzyg'y'shylyg'yn oiatyp, y'aqyttaryn u'nemdey'ge, qosymsha derekterdi tiimdi qoldany'g'a tu'rtki boldy. SHyg'armashylyq jumystarg'a jeteleitin tapsyrmalardy da oqy'shylar qyzyg'a oryndap, erkin ay'darma jumystaryn jasay'g'a dag'dylandy. Ma'selen, Maqal-ma'telderdi salystyry' jumysy oqy'shylardyn' jas ereksheligine bailanysty usynylyp, synybyna orai ku'rdelenilip otyrady. Bul tapsyrmada maqal-ma'telderdi taqyryp boiynsha taby', u'sh tilde ay'darmasyn usyny'g'a bolady.Bul jerde oqy'shylardyn' so'iley' tilderi men say'attylyqtaryna nazar ay'darylady. Al osy taqyryp boiynsha qabileti jog'ary oqy'shylarg'a shyg'armashylyq bag'yttag'y tapsyrma «Maqal-ma'telderdin' balamasyn jaz» dep usyny'g'a bolady.Oqy'shylar o'zderi tan'dag'an taqyrypta u'sh-tilde maqal-ma'tel oilap, balamasyn jazy'g'a talaptanady.

U'shtildilikti  sabaqta ju'ieli tu'rde qoldany'g'a bolady. Ma'selen,«Holidays» taqyrybyn o'tkende izdendiry'-zerttey' bag'ytyndag'y tapsyrma usyny'g'a bolady. IAg'ni, «Qazaq halyq merekeleri men Orys ja'ne Ag'ylshyn halyq merekeleri» taqyryby boiynsha oqy'shylar salystyry' jumysyn jasap, tapqan derekterin toppen birlese otyryp, u'sh tilde erkin baiandap bery'ge talaptanady. Yshtildilikti  qoldany' aiasynda oqy'shylardyn' kommy'nikativtik qabiletterin, zerttey'shilik a'reketterin damytyp, salystyry', talday', da'leldey' syndy dag'dylaryn qalyptastyry'g'a tu'rtki bolady. Sondai-aq, uqsastyqtaryn taby', salystyry' jumystary oqy'shylardyn' qyzyg'y'shylyg'yn oiatady. SHyg'armashylyq bag'yttag'y tapsyrmalar: model, prezentatsiia, joba qury' syndy bag'ytta da usynyly'y tiis.

Qorytyndylai kelgende, bolashaq jastarymyz o'z tilin ardaqtai otyryp, zaman talaby ty'dyryp otyrg'an u'sh tilde erkin so'ilep, a'lemnin' kez-kelgen jerimen erkin bailanysqa tu'sip jatsa elimizdin' erten'inin' ko'rkeite tu'seri so'zsiz. Olai bolsa bu'gingi talapkerlerge a'lemdik ken'istikke qanat qag'yp, shet tilin men'gersem dep talap bildirgenderge sa'ttilik tileiik.

Ag'ylshyn tili
Dosanova Tolganai Madievna, How to learn creatively?

Maqala avtory: Dosanova Tolganai Madievna
Jumys orny: Jambyl orta mektebi
Lay'azymy: ag'ylshyn tili mug'alimi
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 04.11.2018

How to learn creatively?

HOW TO LEARN CREATIVELY

Bul maqalada syn turg'ysynan oilay' arqyly oqy'shylardyn' ag'ylshyn tilin u'ireny'din' tu'rli a'dis-ta'silderi qarastyrylg'an. Oqyty'shylarg'a qandai joldarmen u'irety'din' joldary ko'rsetilgen.

V эtoi state predlagaetsia razliсhnye metody raboty dlia razvitiia kritiсheskogo myshleniia y' y'сhashihsia v izy'сhenii angliiskogo iazyka, a takje kakim obrazom mojno ih эffektivno primeniat v raznyh gry'ppah.

Aims

To introduce you to creative aspects to learning – with a special emphasis on note-making, brainstorming and question matrixing.

Learning outcomes

It is hoped that by the end of working through this chapter you will have:

  • Realized the importance of creative learning strategies
  • Been introduced to note -making theory
  • Been introduced to note-making practice- with the emphasis on creative, pattern notes
  • Been introduced to creative assignment preparation techniques- the brainstorm and the question matrix.

Much of the advice given for us to active learning strategies, skills, techniques and practices is logical, rational and straightforward. Such techniques can turn learning and studying around for you so that your learning becomes effective, satisfying and successful. In this chapter we are taking this a step further. Logical strategies are fantastic, they will make all the difference in themselves – but really shine, to go that one step further, everyone also needs to build creatively into their learning.

Why should we be creative?

Some people do not see the need to be creative in their studies. Perhaps it just seems like more hard work, perhaps they think that their subject does not need creatively- maybe they feel that this is a whole new area that they wish would just go away and leave them alone! However, we have found that students really do benefit from creative thinking. For one thing, it can make things feel lighter, for another it stretches and develops another part of you – and this is agood thing in itself. However, we would like you to feel really positive about being creative when you study, so we have gathered a few arguments here – read them through and see what you think.

    Use all your brain

    Buzan’s work on the psychology of learning tells us that there are two parts of the brain, the logical left and the creative right. Learning strategies that are rational and logical work well with the left part of the brain, but this monotonous learning – as in monotone, one colour learning. He criticizes this learning as being ineffectual because it only utilizes one half of the brain – and this means it is both limiting and boring.

    Play with it

Graham Gibbs, in this work on teaching students to learn, has another argument that connects to creative learning strategies. Gibbs tells us that the word ‘knowledge’, which has Greek and Norse roots, actually means to ‘have sport with ideas’, that is to play with ideas. If we cannot play with the ideas with which we are engaging as students, we will never be able to use them with confidence – hence we will not make them our own.

Typically when we approach new subjects we might be over-awed by them and a natural response.

Active and significant learning

All the way through this text we place an emphasis on you becoming an active learner in control of your own learning. However, it can be very easy to feel trapped by the very nature of academic practice. How can you say what you want what you have to say it in certain way or you have to read so many things before you can even give an opinion of your own?

Carl Rogers, humanist, psychologist and teacher, addressed this by emphasizing that significant learning takes place when students reach out for what they want and need when learning.

    Common sense

    One last justification that we would like to offer for creative learning also touches on the notion of active learning – or the lack of it. Without a creative approach the student is in danger of becoming a passive learner, only using information in the way that other people have used it. Because they have not used a creative note-making system, but have passively recorded what others have said, and the way that they have said it, these students get trapped into other people’s processes.

    How can I be creative?

    Some people believe that you are either born creative or you are not – the same way that much of education is predicated upon the belief that you are either born a good student or you are not. But everyone can rehearse successful study techniques and thus learn how to be a good student.

If you have not tried such kind of techniques before, we will be asking you to change or adapt your learning style. And as always, you might find that change uncomfortable. No one likes to be uncomfortable, even more so perhaps in the educational context where for so many of us everything already feels so strange and uncomfortable. Try to reassure yourself that the discomfort will pass, and that the benefits of these strategies in terms of improvements in your ability to study and learn – and in the grades that you will get for your work – will more than compensate you for the discomfort that you are experiencing.

Literature:

  1. N.D. Galskova « Sovremennaia metodika oby'сheniia inostrannym iazykam», Moskva, 2004
  2. S.Babaeva, K. Kazieva – «Pedagogikalyq innovatsiialar men pedagogikalyq ozat tehnologiialar – talapshan' mug'alim enshisi»
  3. E.S. Polat «Metody oby'сheniia na y'rokah angliiskogo iazyka» IIASH, 2003

Ag'ylshyn tili
Myjikanova Saltanat Jy'mabekovna, Mektepke deiingi mekemede «u'shtug'yrly til» saiasatyn ju'zege asyry'

Maqala avtory: Myjikanova Saltanat Jy'mabekovna
Jumys orny: "Saltanat" bo'bekjai-baqshasy MKKQ
Lay'azymy: ag'ylshyn tili mug'alimi
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 14.10.2018

Mektepke deiingi mekemede «u'shtug'yrly til» saiasatyn ju'zege asyry'

SHet tilderin u'ireny', a'sirese ag'ylshyn tili qazirgi – zamannyn' qajettiligi.
N.A'. Nazarbaev.

Elbasymyz N.A'. Nazarbaev «Bolashaqtyn' irgesin birge qalaimyz!» atty Jolday'ynda «Qazirgi zamang'y qazaqstandyq u'shin u'sh tildi bily' – a'rkimnin' derbes tabystylyg'ynyn' mindetti sharty» dep ag'ylshyn tilin igery'din' a'rbir azamatqa jan'a mu'mkindikterdi ashatynyn atap o'tken edi. Elimizdin' эkonomikasy damyg'an saiyn ag'ylshyn tilin men'gery' talaby da arty'da. Ag'ylshyn tilin men'gerty'din' basty maqsaty — til u'ireny'shilerdin' kommy'nikativtik quzyrlyg'yn qalyptastyry', shet elderde erkin qarym qatynas jasai aly', o'z oiyn sol tilde jetkize aly' bolyp tabylady.
Qazirgi zamanda biz shet tilin u'irety'di balabaqsha esiginen bastaimyz. Ba'rimizge belgili, ag'ylshyn tilin u'irety'di erte jastan bastasaq, bul balanyn' kommy'nikativti damy' biliktiligin arttyrady, qyzyg'y'shylyg'yn oiaty'g'a mu'mkindik beredi ja'ne de tildik kemshilikterdi joiyp, bolashaqta tildi tez igery'ge ko'mektesedi. A'ri sa'bi kezinde alg'an bilim jadynda tez saqtalady. Eger bala balabaqsha irgetasynda o'zge tildi men'gery'di bastasa, keleshekte ana tilindei taza, anyq so'iley'ine mu'mkindikter alady.
Mektep jasyna deiingi kezen' — tilderdi u'ireny'ge en' qolaily kezen', osy jastag'y balalardyn' este saqtay'y men logikalyq oilay' qabileti jog'ary bolady. Biz osy kezen'di paidalanyp, balalardyn' jan-jaqty damy'yn qamtamasyz ety' u'shin, ag'ylshyn tilin u'ireny' u'shin «Saltanat» bo'bekjai baqshasynda «Ag'ylshyn tilin u'ireneiik» u'iirmesin qurdyq. Bul u'iirme 3-6 jastag'y balalarg'a arnalg'an, aptasyna eki ret ju'rgiziledi.
U'iirmenin' maqsaty:
-ku'ndelikti ku'n ta'rtibinde ag'ylshyn tilin qoldanys aiasyna engizy', mysaly: tan'erten'gilik qabylday'da ag'ylshynsha amandasy', qalyn' suray', sery'enge, tu'ski asta, shynyqtyry' sharalarynda, oiyn is-a'reketterinde ay'yz-eki so'iley' barysynda aitylatyn qarapaiym dialogty ag'ylshyn tilinde aita bily'ge u'irety';
-o'tpeli taqyryptar (menin' balabaqsham, sandar, otbasy, oiynshyqtar, tu'ster, ko'likter, jany'arlar, jemister, jiһaz, mamandyqtar, jyl mezgilderi, tb) boiynsha ag'ylshyn leksikasyn u'irety';
— ag'ylshyn tilinin' grammatikasynyn' qarapaiym negizderimen tanystyry';
-tilderdin' negizimen, ay'yzsha so'iledin' qarapaiym dag'dylaryn men'gerty';
— tyn'dag'andy tu'siny' dag'dylaryn qalyptastyry';
-monologtik ja'ne dialogtik so'iley' tilin damyty';
-ag'ylshyn so'zderin durys dybystay'g'a u'irety';
U'iirmenin' mindeti- balalardyn' ag'ylshyn tilinde so'iley' bilim-bilik dag'dylaryn qalyptastyry', tildin' kommy'nikativtik qyzmetin men'gerty'. so'zdik qoryn, til bailyg'yn damyty', bir-birimen qatynas jasai aly'g'a yntalandyry', a'r balanyn' tilge degen qyzyg'y'shylyg'yn arttyry'.
Ku'tiletin na'tijie:
Balalardyn' u'shtildilik kommy'nikativtik qatynasy nyg'aia tu'sedi, so'zdik qory ko'beiedi, til bailyg'y dami tu'sedi, bir-birimen ag'ylshyn tilinde qatynas jasaidy, qoiylg'an suraqtarg'a jay'ap beredi, bailanystyryp so'iley'i qalyptasady; tildi men'gery'ge degen qyzyg'y'shylyg'y arta tu'sedi, oqy' bag'darlamasy ju'ieli u'zdiksiz oqytylady, bilim sapasy artady.
Qorytyndylai kelsek, balabaqshada tilderdin' u'shtug'yrlyg'yn durys uiymdastyryp oqyty', balalarg'a bilim bery', ta'rbieley' ja'ne damyty' mindetterin sheshy'ge, olardy zamanay'i ko'ptildi a'lem o'mirine daiynday'g'a ko'mektesedi. Balalardyn' bolashaqta tilderdi on'ai men'gery'ine jol ashady.

Ag'ylshyn tili
Djy'ldieva Bibigy'l Askarovna, Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world

Maqala avtory: Djy'ldieva Bibigy'l Askarovna
Jumys orny: Atyray' qalasy Isatai Taimanov atyndag'y orta mektep
Lay'azymy: ag'ylshyn tili pa'ninin' mug'alimi
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 08.10.2018

Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world

Long-term plan unit: 7.3C Natural Disasters
School: I.Taimanov
Date: Teacher name: Dzhuldieva Bibigul
Grade: 7 a,b Number present: absent:
Theme of the lesson Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world
Learning objectives that are achieved at this lesson 7.C2 use speaking and listening skills to provide sensitive feedback to peers
7.C6 organise and present information clearly to others
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics
Lesson objectives All learners will be able to:
• Learn 16 out of 20 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan and understand the main idea of the text level 1.
Most learners will be able to:
• Learn 19 out of 20 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan, understand the main idea and specific information of the text level 1.
Some learners will be able to:
• Learn 22 out of 27 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan, understand the main idea and specific information of the text level 2.
Assessment criteria Learners achieved the LO if they were able to match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Language objective Past Simple Tense
Intercultural awareness Learners find out about weather in different parts of the world and in Kazakhstan
Values instilled at the lesson Transparency: learners and teachers work together to develop goals and objectives of the lesson. Teacher and learners assess each other and justify the an assessment, give feedback.
Cooperation: The teacher and learners in collaboration achieve the lesson objectives and discuss the results of cooperation; feedback «teacher-student», » learner — learner » is carried out throughout the entire lesson.
Patriotism: learners learn about natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Cross-curricular links Geography: learners learn about natural disasters in different parts of Kazakhstan.
ICT skills Learners use laptops for vocabulary work.
Previous learning
Learners will be familiar with some of the vocabulary associated with natural disasters. Learners may have some knowledge of the associated problems, but they are not expected to have a thorough knowledge.
Kazakh culture Learners find out about measures taken after the disasters in Kazakhstan
Pastoral Care Student centred teaching: respect, support and scaffolding;
To create a friendly atmosphere for collaborative work.
Promote a sense of self-esteem and self-respect and respect for others among all the learners.
Health and Safety Everyday classroom precautions will ensure that safety measures are provided to prevent the exposure of electrical power cords.
Course of the lesson
Planned stages of the lesson Planned activities at the lesson Resources
Beginning:

5 min

2 min

2 min

5 min

10 min

10 min

Warming up activity
Learners watch a video and tell what familiar words and phrases they heard (topical vocabulary from the previous lesson) – mudslide, flood, heavy rains …
Some learners may be able to tell the main message of the video – what caused the mudslide in Almaty (melting of glaciers)

Teacher and learners discuss the topic and lesson objectives:
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan
• Discuss what natural disasters are common in Kazakhstan, their causes and results

Teacher presents some facts about disasters in Kazakhstan and displays a table on the active board. Example: In 2005 there was a flood. Fortunately, no one died, but 25 thousand people were affected and it bought damage of 7662 $.

Reading strategy: scanning
Learners are divided into two mixed ability groups and given two short texts about other disasters in Kazakhstan. They analyze the information together and fill in the table. Then groups compare information in their tables.

Vocabulary work
Learners match the topical vocabulary in English with equivalents in Russian. For this activity learners can use online dictionaries. Wordlists are differentiated according to the level of learners.

Reading
Learners read texts “Recent major disasters and response activities” according to their level (easier, harder). Learners show their understanding by matching disasters and dates with their description. This work is done in writing.

Assessment
Learners submit their papers. Learners will achieve their learning objective if they can match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIjSuGYSlIE

Presentation slide 2

Presentation slide 3

Appendix 3

Appendix 4,5

Appendix 1,2
5 min

Reflection:
Learners put the cards with words on the board in the following order: cause – disaster – result
Cards: heavy rains, flood, houses were inundated, sharp rise in air temperature, earthquake, roads were destroyed. Reflection cards
Differentiation – how do you plan to give more support? How do you plan to challenge the more able learners? Assessment – how are you planning to check students’ learning? Critical thinking
Texts and wordlists of two levels are provided. Learners’ reading will be assessed by the teacher according to the success criteria.
Vocabulary work is peer-assessed by different groups Learners find out about cause and result relations.
Reflection
Were the lesson objectives/learning objectives realistic? Did all learners achieve the LO?
If not, why?
Did my planned differentiation work well?
Did I stick to timings?
What changes did I make from my plan and why?
Use the space below to reflect on your lesson. Answer the most relevant questions from the box on the left about your lesson.
All learners achieved the learning objectives as the reading task was differentiated. I needed some more time for reflection so next time I will leave more time for this activity.
Summary evaluation

What two things went really well (consider both teaching and learning)?
1: group work while filling in the table;

2: reading comprehension;

What two things would have improved the lesson (consider both teaching and learning)?
1: make reflection a written task;

2: grouppair work;

What have I learned from this lesson about the class or achievements/difficulties of individuals that will inform my next lesson?
Most of the students have problems with Past Simple Tense.

Appendix 1
Formative assessment
Level 1 (less able learners)

7.3C Natural Disasters
Key Learning objectives Success criteria Task
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics Students achieved the LO if they were able to
match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Read the text
Recent major disasters and response activities (easier)
In May 2003, the Zhambyl region was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.4 on the Richter scale. The earthquake affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings. The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
Flooding in east Kazakhstan in May 2001 lasted for more than one month, affecting 4,500 people and damaging roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region. The National Society of Kazakhstan supported flood victims with food, bedding and other very important things.

Match the events and their description
Event Description
1 Floods in 1993 It lasted for more than one month.
More than 13,000 people lost their homes
2 Floods in 2001 Ten lives were lost.
The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
3 Earthquake in 2003 5,500 houses were damaged.
2,383 houses were inundated.
4 Floods in 2008 It damaged roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region.
It affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings.

Appendix 2
Formative assessment
Level 2 (more able learners)

7.3C Natural Disasters
Key Learning objectives Success criteria Task
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics Students achieved the LO if they were able to
match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Read the text
Recent major disasters and response activities (harder)
In May 2003, the Zhambyl region was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.4 on the Richter scale. The earthquake affected 43,300 people and brought devastation to housing and social infrastructure. The consequences of the earthquake showed that neither people nor the local administration, including medical centers, were prepared for such disasters.
Flooding in east Kazakhstan in May 2001 lasted for more than one month, affecting 4,500 people and damaging roads and infrastructure in 28 settlements in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region. The National Society of Kazakhstan provided immediate support to flood victims in the form of food, bedding and other very important things.

Match the events and their description
Event Description
1 Floods in 1993 It lasted for more than one month.
More than 13,000 people lost their homes
2 Floods in 2001 Ten lives were lost.
The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
3 Earthquake in 2003 5,500 houses were damaged.
2,383 houses were inundated.
4 Floods in 2008 It damaged roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region.
It affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings.

Appendix 3

Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Recent major disasters
Year Disaster Killed Affected Damage

2005 Flood 0 25 000 7662 $
2004 Landslide 48 — —
2003 Earthquake 3 36626 —

Source: «EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net — Universite Catholique de Louvain — Brussels — Belgium»
Read this information and add it to the table above
1) Kazakhstan suffered severe damages from floods as a result of melting snow because of the sharp rise in temperature and heavy rains during May 1993. The flood caused much damage, ten lives were lost and about 30,000 people lost their homes. 5,500 houses were damaged.
2) On 21-22 February 2008, South Kazakhstan was flooded as a result of heavy rains and a sharp rise in air temperature, which led to fast melting of snow. In total 2,383 houses were inundated; 298 houses were destroyed, one person died and more than 13,000 people lost their homes.

Appendix 4
Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Vocabulary level 1 (less able learners)
1. Match English words with their Russian equivalents
2. Make a word list and memorize the words
English Equivalent Russian
1) Damage Polnyi, tselyi
2) Disaster Navodnenie
3) Flood Zemletriasenie
4) Landslide Stradat
5) Earthquake Taiat
6) Suffer Sy'rovyi
7) Severe Jertva
8) To melt Rezkii podem
9) Sharp rise Y'sherb
10) To cause Dlitsia
11) Increase Podderjka
12) Total Opolzen
13) To inundate SHkala Rihtera
14) To destroy Priсhinit, stat priсhinoi
15) Magnitude Bedstvie
16) Richter scale Magnity'da, sila
17) To affect Razry'shat
18) To last Y'silenie, povyshenie
19) To support Zatopliat
20) Victim Vliiat

Appendix 5
Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Vocabulary level 2 (more able learners)
1. Match English words with their Russian equivalents
2. Make a word list and memorize the words
English Equivalent Russian
1) Damage Ni …, ni …
2) Disaster Y'silenie, povyshenie
3) Flood Y'sherb
4) Landslide Navodnenie
5) Earthquake Opolzen
6) Suffer Taiat
7) Severe Razry'shat
8) To melt Zemletriasenie
9) Sharp rise Stradat
10) To cause Priсhinit, stat priсhinoi
11) Consequence Podgotovitsia
12) Neither … nor Bedstvie
13) Increase Sy'rovyi
14) Total Posledstvie
15) To inundate Rezkii podem
16) To destroy Polnyi, tselyi
17) Magnitude Zatopliat
18) Richter scale Magnity'da, sila
19) To affect Obespeсhit
20) Devastation Poselenie
21) To prepare Jertva
22) To last Dlitsia
23) Settlement Vliiat
24) To provide SHkala Rihtera
25) Immediate Razry'ha
26) Support Podderjka
27) Victim Nezamedlitelnyi

Ag'ylshyn tili
Djy'ldieva Bibigy'l Askarovna, In the world of English idioms

Maqala avtory: Djy'ldieva Bibigy'l Askarovna
Jumys orny: Atyray' qalasy I.Taimanov atyndag'y orta mektep
Lay'azymy: Ag'ylshyn tili pa'ninin' mug'alimi
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 08.10.2018

In the world of English idioms

Content
1. Introduction
a) The aim of research work
b)History of the development of phraseology
c) The hypothesis
2. Main body
a) The definition of the term “idiom”

b) The origin of the word “idiom”
c) The Structure of Idioms
d) Idioms groups

3. Conclusion
4. Used literature

1. Introduction

I’ll start by saying that I got acquainted with idioms last year. I was greatly surprised when I learnt that idioms can’t be translated word by word, because their meanings depend on the meaning of the whole expression.

More over idioms are widely used in the oral speech, in the magazines’ articles, dialogues adding to the language bright and colorful shades of meaning. Obviously without knowing the meaning of the idiom you won’t be able to get the essence of the joke, because as a rule every joke is based on the variety of their meanings.
The English language is full of idioms (over 15,000). Native speakers of English use idioms all the time, often without realizing that they are doing so. This means that communication with native speakers of English can be quite a confusing experience.
We use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. We often use an image or symbol to describe something as clearly as possible and thus make our point as effectively as possible. For example, «in a nutshell» suggests the idea of having all the information contained within very few words. Idioms tend to be informal and are best used in spoken rather than written English.
The field for my research is the idiomatic similes. To my mind they are widely used in all spheres of our life and if you know their translation exactly you will use them just in the right place and time.

The aim of research work is to learn more about the world of the English idioms and attract my classmates’ attention to them, proving that using idioms in our speech makes it brighter and more intelligent.

Phraseology is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently.
The study of phraseological figurativeness is one of the main and perspective aspects of modern phraseology development. World vision through the phraseological images is specific for each nationality and can be observed as one of characteristics of language system specificity. In this case the great interest is presented with comparative phraseologisms as one of the more efficient means of figurativeness and expressiveness.
“The figurativeness as real peculiarity of various levels’ language units is manifested in their ability to call in our consciousness visual images, bright pictures on the basis of which we accept objectively real and definitely logical content of these units…”.
By phraseological figurativeness we mean “combined vision of two pictures” out of which the third one, new, appears absorbing all the necessary significant features of the previous ones. In other words, we may say about the image as ‘the form of new idea’s embodiment.
As the result of combinability of these features new structures are formed in our consciousness, so called ‘concepts’. The concept is “mental representation which determines the way things associate with each other and how they refer to definite categories… ”. The main role which concepts play in our thinking is categorization; it is the ability to group all the objects possessing definite similarities into corresponding classes.
No doubt, phraseologisms bear the “pictorial” character, among which we mark out the following types: “pictures”, concept-schemes, concept-frames and concept-sceneries.
1.2 History of the development of phraseology
Phraseology is a scholarly approach to a language which developed in the twentieth century. It took its start when Charles Bally’s notion of locutions
phraseologiques entered Russian lexicology and lexicography in the 1930s and 1940s and was subsequently developed in the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. From the late 1960s it established itself in (East) German linguistics but was also sporadically approached in English linguistics. The earliest English adaptations of phraseology are by Weinreich (1969) within the approach of transformational grammar, Arnold (1973), and Lipka (1992 [1974]). In Great Britain as well as other Western European countries, phraseology has steadily been developed over the last twenty years. The activities of the European Society of Phraseology (EUROPHRAS) and the European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX) with their regular conventions and publications attest to the prolific European interest in phraseology. Bibliographies of recent studies on English and general phraseology are included in Welte (1990) and specially collected in Cowie&Howarth (1996) whose bibliography is reproduced and continued on the internet and provides a rich source of the most recent publications in the field.
The hypothesis is that by using idioms you can distinguish a native speaker from the advanced learner and the beginner in studying the English language.
The methods of research used:
analysis
comparison
questionnair
2. Main part
The definition of the term “idiom”
An idiom is a set expression, the meaning of which is different from the literal meanings of its components. It refers to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. Idioms present a great variety of structures and combinations that are mostly unchangeable and often not logical and may not follow basic rules of grammar.
The Webster dictionary gives following definition: Idiom is an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent element as kick the bucket, hang one’s head etc., or from the general grammatical rules of language, as the table round for the round table, and which is not a constituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of English Idioms gives us definition of “idiom”. The word ‘idiom’ is used to describe the ‘special phrases’ that are an essential part of a language. Idioms may be ‘special’ in different ways: for example, the expression to kick the bucket seems to follow the normal rules of grammar, although we cannot say ‘kick a bucket’ or ‘kick the buckets’ , but it is impossible to guess that it means ‘to die’. Phrases like all right, on second thoughts, and same here, which are used in everyday English, and especially in spoken English, are ‘special’ because they are fixed units of language that clearly do not follow the normal rules of grammar.

Another formulation of “idiom (Dubrovin M., ‘Russian-English Idioms) is set phraseological units which meaning does not result from the meaning of its components.

The definition by Dean Curry is “the assigning of a new meaning to a group of words which already have their own meaning”. Idioms are informal in nature and although they appear in literature, they are not necessary considered to be “literary”. They are often colloquial, often slang, and through overuse can become cliches. Idioms may be adjectival, adverbial, verbal, or nominal. They also may take the form of traditional saying and proverbs.

The origin of the word “idiom”

In fact, the word idiom comes from the Greek root idio, meaning a unique signature. Thus, each language contains expressions that make no sense when translated literally into another tongue.

Some idioms of the «worldwide English» have first been seen in the works of writers like Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Lewis Carroll or even in the paperbacks of contemporary novelists. An example of Shakespearian quotation can be found in the following sentence:»As a social worker, you certainly see the seamy side of life.» Biblical references are also the source of many idioms. Sports terms, technical terms,

legal terms, military slang and even nautical expressions have found their way to the everyday use of English language.
Many idioms are similar to expressions in other languages and can be easy for a learner to understand. Other idioms come from older phrases which have changed over time.
To hold one’s horses means to stop and wait patiently for someone or something. It comes from a time when people rode horses and would have to hold their horses while waiting for someone or something.
«Hold your horses,» I said when my friend started to leave the store.
Other idioms come from such things as sports that are common in the United Kingdom or the United States and may require some special cultural knowledge to easily understand them.
To cover all of one’s bases means to thoroughly prepare for or deal with a situation. It comes from the American game of baseball where you must cover or protect the bases.
I tried to cover all of my bases when I went to the job interview.
What for do we use idioms?
1) For emphasis, e.g. The singer’s second album sank like a stone, [failed completely]
2) To agree with a previous speaker, e.g.
A: Did you notice how Lisa started listening when you said her name?
B: Yes, that certainly made her prick her ears up. [startlisteningcarefully]
3) To comment on people, e.g. Did you hear Tom has been invited for dinner with the prime minister? He’s certainly gone up in the world! [gained a better social position — or more money — than before]
4) To comment on a situation, e.g. The new finance minister wants to knock the economy into shape, [take action to get something into a good condition]
5) To make an anecdote more interesting, e.g. It was just one disaster after another today, a sort of domino effect, [when something, usually bad, happens and causes a series of other things to happen]
6) To catch the reader’s eye. Idioms — particularly those with strong images — are often used in headlines, advertising slogans and the names of small businesses. The writer may play with the idiom or make a pun (a joke involving a play on words) in order to create a special effect, e.g. a debt of dishonour instead of the usual debt of honour, [a debt that you owe someone for moral rather than financial reasons]
7) To indicate membership of a particular group, e.g. surfers drop in on someone, meaning to get on a wave another surfer is already on.
We will see and hear idioms in all sorts of speaking and writing. They are particularly common in everyday conversation and in popular journalism. For example, they are often found in magazine horoscopes, e.g. You’ll spend much of this week licking your wounds [trying to recover from a bad experience], or in problem pages, e.g. Do you think that my relationship has run its course? [come to a natural end] However, idioms are also used in more formal contexts, such as lectures, academic essays and business reports, e.g. It is hoped the regulations will open the door to better management, [let something new start].

Common metaphors in idioms. What is a metaphor?

Metaphors describe a person, object or situation by comparing it to something else with similar characteristics. They are often used in poetry and literature. In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, for example, Romeo says ‘Juliet is my sun’, suggesting that she is the most important force in his life, bringing him light and warmth.
Many idioms are based on metaphors. However, idioms are expressions that are used so frequently and are so fixed in the language that people often do not think about the metaphors behind them. The metaphors used in idioms are therefore much less original and thought-provoking than those used in literary contexts. People say, for example, ‘The new president was / took centre stage at the meeting’ [was the most important or noticeable thing or person], without thinking of the original image of a theatre.
Why idioms and metaphors are so important?
Firstly, they are important because they are very common. It is impossible to speak, read, or listen to English without meeting idiomatic language.
The second reason is that very often the metaphorical use of a word is more common today than its literal use. For example, we know that farmers plough their field, but we can plough through a long novel or report; we can plough on with our work; we can plough money into a business; profits can be ploughed back into a company; a lorry can plough into a row of parked cars. Using plough in its literal farming meaning is now much rarer than all its other non-literal uses.
Types of idioms
Binominals
Binomials are a type of idiom in which two words are joined by a conjunction (linking word), usually and. The order of the two words is fixed. For example, we always say black and white, NOT white and black: Managing climate change isn’t a black and white issue, [separate and clear]
The words can be:
1. synonyms (words which mean the same): Sara’s work is always very neat and tidy;
2. opposites: If you go for cheaper speakers, the sound quality may be a bit hit and miss, [sometimes good, sometimes had (informal)];
3. the same word: They finished the race neck and neck, [equal];
4. rhyming: Tables in the canteen take a lot of wear and tear, [damage through everyday use];
5. alliterative: After the match the players’ legs were black and blue, [very bruised];
6. joined by words other than and: The traffic was bumper to bumper all the way to the coast, [very heavy] Little by little, Vera gained the horse’s confidence, [gradually] The house must be worth a quarter of a million, give or take a few thousand, [plus or minus (informal)];
Trinomials are a similar type of idiom, in which three words are joined, e.g. I’ve looked here, there and everywhere for my glasses but can’t find them, [everywhere]
Euphemisms
Euphemisms are a type of idiom used to avoid saying words which may offend or be considered unpleasant. They are useful to learn, as they will help to communicate using language which is appropriate for the situation.
Euphemisms are used:
a) To talk about subjects which may upset or offend, such as death.
It was obvious he was not long for this world, but he never lost his sense of humour. [going to die soon]
To avoid using direct words for body functions
I’m just going to spend a penny. [use the toilet (UK public toilets used to charge a penny.)]
b) For humorous effect when telling anecdotes.
My boss was effing and blinding because he had lost a confidential report. [swearing (some common English swear words begin with f or b) (informal)]
c) By the media or political instructions to tone down unpleasant situations.
Many soldiers have made a supreme / ultimate sacrifice for their country. [died]
He died in a friendly fire accident. [killed by his own side, not by the enemy]

The Structure of Idioms
Most idioms are unique and fixed in their grammatical structure. The expression to sit on the fence cannot become to sit on a fence or to sit on the fences. However, there are many changes that can be made to an idiom.
Some of these changes result in a change in the grammatical structure that would generally be considered to be wrong. To be broken literally means that something is broken. The lamp is broken so I cannot easily read my book. To be broke is grammatically incorrect but it has the idiomatic meaning of to have no money. I am broke and I cannot go to a movie tonight.
There can also be changes in nouns, pronouns or in the verb tenses. I sat on the fence and did not give my opinion.Many people are sitting on the fence and do not want to give their opinion.
Adjectives and adverbs can also be added to an idiomatic phrase.
The politician has been sitting squarely in the middle of the fence since the election.
It is for these reasons that it is sometimes difficult to isolate the actual idiomatic expression and then find it in a dictionary of idioms.
As far as I know there are different ways how to render the essence of the idioms, for example: selecting the Russian equivalents or descriptive translation. For me, it’s easier to remember the meaning of the idiom if I manage to find the proper and colorful equivalent.

Idioms groups
I continued to do my research work with dividing theidioms into the groups. I decided to choose the idioms that seemed to be the most interesting for learning and using in my study of the English language. I looked through some dictionaries of the idioms and set-expressions.

The first group of idioms I picked up ispeople’s character. We live in the society where each person estimates other people and their behavior, traits of character and expresses his opinion. Here are some descriptions which characterize me, you, your friends and people who are around us.

Ball of fire: You shouldn’t be panic when somebody says that you are a ball of fire. You won’t burn. This person means that you are very energetic.

Ex.:Sally is a real ball of fire. She works late every night.

Full of beans: If your friend says that he is full of beans. It doesn’t mean that he has eaten many beans today, he means that he has a good mood.

Ex.:The head of the company was full of beans after he was informed that his company won the tender.

Be all thumbs: If somebody says that you are all thumbs it means that you are very awkward.

Ex.: — Hey! You are pouring my coffee on the table!
— Oh, I’m so sorry! I have been all thumbs today.

Move up in the world: If somebody moves up in the world it means that he has become a successful person.
Ex.:The young man is working hard and he is moving up in the world.

The second group istheidioms about the time. In the modern English language there are many idiomatic phrases that help people to explain an abstract meaningof the time easily.

Against the clock: This phrase means that the time “works against you”, and you feel the lack of it for fulfillment of some affairs.

Ex.: “Hurry up!You are working against the clock! We have very little time to do it”.

Like clock work: This phrase describes regular definite events.

Ex.:“He is as regular as clockwork in his habits – he goes to the bank every Friday”.

Not born yesterday: We say this idiom when we want to show that it is difficult to deceive us.

Ex.:“This car has a lot of faults. You must think I was born yesterday if you expected me to buy this car”.

Time of your life: Somebody says it that when he enjoys what he does, when he has a good time.

Ex.:“The children were tired out when they arrived home – they’d had the time of their lives playing in the mud, without their parents there to tell them to keep clean”.

With a snap of the fingers: If you manage to do something as soon as you click your fingers, and it comes out in moment, very quickly.

Ex.: If you could snap your fingers and immediately have this skill, which would you choose:
1. Fluency in every European language?
2. Or fluency in Chinese?

The third group isthe idioms with religious ideas. Faith is something that helps people to live. And it isn’t extraordinary that in our speech there are phrase about this part of our live.

Come hell or high water: When something must certainly happen, this event will happen even if flood starts or hell falls. In this case English use this idiom.

Ex.: Finish the project come hell or high water!

Meet me at the airport come hell or high water!

Sing form the same hymn sheet: This idiom means that people say the same things, having the same points of view.

Ex.:All political parties sing from the same hymn sheet.

Ninth circle of hell: In the Dante’s Aligere’s work “God’s comedy” in the Ninth circle of hell the main character met the most terrible sinner, and saw the most horrible punishments which were given to them. That’s why when something is very bad it is the ninth circle of hell.

Ex.: Our politics in economics is the ninth circle of hell.

Cold day in hell: Cold day in hell happens once an eternity. Therefore when we say that something will happen on a cold day in hell it means that it will never happen.

Ex.: — When will you pass your exam?

— On a cold day in hell!

The fourth group isbusiness idioms.In this group there are idioms which you can use when you speak with your foreign business partners or when you tell about your firm.

Bad egg: Bag egg is a person that you can’t trust. He is a swindler.

Ex.:This businessman has a reputation of a bad egg. Nobody wants to deal with him.

To be in the red: a person or a firm is in the red when they have debts. On the one hand red color is the color of danger, problem. And absence money is a suitable situation. On the other hand in England and America banks sent to debtors letters where “You have debts! Return them” which was written by red inks.

Ex.: The phone company found itself about three millions dollars in the red.

Hot potato: Have you ever held a hot potato in your hands? You don’t want to drop it but you can’t hold it any more because it’s too hot and you throw it from one hand to the other hand while it isn’t getting cold. Hot potato is a tickly question. It is hard and unpleasantly to deal with it.

Ex.: This new local small business law is a true hot potato in our region!

Fat cat: Fat cat is a person that has much money. But in this phrase there is disapproval shade of meaning. You can call somebody a fat cat if you don’t approve the way this person spends his money.

Ex.:The owner of this company decided to sponsor “LDPR”. What a fat cat!

The fifth group isthe idioms about the computers. Nowadays we can’t imagine our life without it. That’s why here are some idioms which are connected with computers.

All hardware sucks: This phrase means that all computer system is disable to fulfill your orders.

Ex.: I’m afraid that there is nothing to do else, because your all hardware sucks.

Blue screen of death: Blue screen of death describes the situation when all computer screen became blue and many words, symbols and letters appear on it which you can’t understand. They advise you to restart the computer.

Ex.:Running this program always ends by a Blue screen of death.

Hang: If your computer hangs, it means that all system doesn’t reply any commands

Ex.: I can’t connect the net, because my comp hangs again and again!

Big red switch: There is really big switch on many computer blocks but even if it is small it is called a big red switch in order to make emphasis on the fact that switching on it, the complex system, I mean a computer, begins to work.
Ex.:Don’t panic when having a blue screen of death, just push a Big Red Switch!
The most interesting group for me is comparative idioms. In order to make them we must use the construction as…as. I like this group because there are very funny. For example, when you want to say that you are very hungry you can say that you are as hungry as a hunter, etc.
As easy as pie: very easy.

«I thought you said this was a difficult problem. It isn’t. In fact, it’s as easy as pie.»

As hungry as a hunter: very hungry.

I haven’t eaten anything all day that’s why I am as hungry as a hunter.

As good as gold: very good.

This boy helped me very much. He is as good as gold.

As red as a beetroot: very red

Now Ann’s face is as red as a beetroot because she has lied.

As strong as an ox: very strong.

I think that this man does sports because he is as strong as an ox.

Different linguists group idioms in different ways. For example, I divide them like this:
1) Animal Idioms
2) Plants Idioms
3) Fruits and vegetables Idioms
4) Colour Idioms
5) Body Idioms
6) Food Idioms
7) Feelling and actions Idioms

Animal Idioms

Like a horse It means : to work hard
As a bee It means : about very busy man
As brave as a lio It means : about very brave man
Chicken It means : a coward man
Eagle eyesIt means : someone who has eagle eyes
To work like a dog – rabotaty'serdno
Abookworm – knijnyi сherv ( oсhenliy'bit сhitat)
Chicken — try's
Acopycat – сhelovek, kotoryi podrajaet ( netsvoego mneniia)
Anearlybird – сhelovek, kotoryi vezde samyi pervyi
Plants Idioms

As fresh as a daisy- fresh, healthy man
As fresh as a rose- about beautiful man
Shake like a leaf-to be afraid, tremble as a leaf
To go around the bush-avoid giving a clear answer
As hot as a pepper- very spicy

Fruits and vegetables Idioms
To buy a lemon- to buy something useless or defective
As cool as a cucumber-cool headed man in the face of danger or difficulty
Couch potato-a lazy person, watching TV
Bad apple- criminal, trouble maker
Sour grapes-pretending to not want something
Lemon law- protect people from defective food
The apple of one’s eye – liy'bimyiсhelovek
Go bananas – shoditsy'ma

Colour Idioms

Once in a blue moon- in early days
A heart of gold- a very kind and good man
To have green fingers-he is a good gardener
As white as a sheet- to afraid something
To born with a silver spoon in his mouth-very lucky man
A dark horse- nobody know much about him
Out of the blue –neojidanno
In the red – bytvdolgy'
Thegreenlight – razreshenie dlia сhego-to
Intheblack – pri dengah, bogatyi

Body Idioms

I let my hair down-to have a rest
An old head on young shoulder- he is too young but wise and clever
It costs an arm and a leg-it’s very expensive
Break one’s heart- to do suffer to somebody
To bite one’s tongue- stop talking
To zip the lip- to keep silence
Food Idioms
A big cheese- an important person, a leader
A bad egg- a bad person to be avoid
Cry over spilt milk- to cry about something that has already happened
Bread and butter- basic needs of life
Piece of cake- that you consider it to be very easy
Like a fish out of water- to be uncomfortable situation

Feelling and actions Idioms
Fallin love-to love somebody
A yes man- the man who listen everybody
An early bird- the man will be the first everywhere
A man of means-to be a very rich
At first sight- the first impression of the man
A man of his word — aperson who keeps promises
TimeIdioms
Likeclockwork – delat vse v odno vremia
Notbornyesterday – try'dno obmany't kogo-to( ne vсhera rodilsia)
With a snap of the fingers – oсhenbystro
High time — pora
In no time — momentalno
Tokilltime — bezdelniсhat
Numbers Idioms
Sixthsense – y'met dogadyvatsia ( imet shestoe сhy'vstvo)
At first sight – pervoevpeсhatlenie
Of two minds — nereshitelnyi
In seventh heaven – oсhensсhastlivyi
«Man and his characteristic features»

Balloffire – oсhen эnergiсhnyi сhelovek.
Fullofbeans – byt v horoshem nastroenii
Move up in the world – byty'speshnymсhelovekom
A man of means – bogatyiсhelovek
Tobeshorthanded – ny'jdaiy'shiisia v pomoshi
Tozipthelip – ne razgovarivat
Tostretchthetruth – prey'veliсhivat
Tohaveagreenthumb – imet sposobnost k vyrashivaniiy' rastenii
Many teachers of English like to group idioms in alphabetic order.
The site www.learn-english-today.com put them in such a way:

Negotiations
Anger-irritation
Employment — Jobs
Number Idioms
Animal & bird Idioms
Enthusiasm-impatience
Problems — difficulties
Anxiety — fear
Feelings-emotions
Relationships
Arguments-disagreements
Food Idioms
Safety — danger
Authority — power
Frankness — Sincerity
Secrets — indiscretion
Behaviour idioms
Fun-enjoyment
Shopping
Body idioms
Happiness — Sadness
Situations
Business — Work Idioms
Health Idioms
Speed — rapidity
Choices — Options
Hesitation — Indecision
Sports Idioms
Clothes Idioms
Honesty — dishonesty
Success-failure
Colour idioms
Intelligence-understanding
Suitability
Communication
Law & Order
Surprise-disbelief
Comparisons-similitude
Madness — Insanity
Thoughts-ideas
Consequences-effects
Memory — Remembering
Time idioms
Descriptions of people
Mistakes-errors
Travel-transport
Descriptions — places-things
Money Idioms
Weather-atmosphere
d) Investigation
Last year I learnt about the idioms at my English lessons at school. My teacher recommended me to spend more time investigating this field of the language.
It was interesting for me to know how many idioms the pupils of 9th – 11th forms know. I handed the questionnaires to the students of our school. It appeared that they know just a few of them, some students know more than ten idioms and the others know less than 10 or even don’t know idioms at all. After that I asked the pupils how often they use idioms in their dialogues or situations. And it appeared that they use them seldom or don’t use them at all. Then I asked pupils if they think that idioms enrich the English language and the most of them answered that they have no idea about it.

So I decided to make the list of idioms used frequently by the native speakers and group them according to the meaning.

These are the questions I asked my classmates, schoolmates, friends and acquaintances. I prepared multiple-choice questionnaire.

1. How many idioms do you know?

• I don’t know any idioms.
• I know less than 10 idioms.
• I know 10 – 30 idioms.
• I know more than 30 idioms.
• I know more than 50 idioms.

2. How often do use idioms?
• I don’t use idioms.
• I seldom use idioms.
• I often use idioms.

3. Do you think that idioms adorn English language?

• Yes, I do. To my mind idioms adorn English language.
• No, I don’t. In my opinion idioms don’t adorn English language.
• I don’t know.

I wanted to learn how many idioms students of 9th-11th forms know. I asked pupils in our school

How many idioms
do you know?

Then I wanted to learn how often they used idioms.

How often do you use idioms?

After that I wanted to learn if people thought that idioms enrich the English language?

Do you think that idioms enrich
the English language?

Conclusion

English is a language particularly rich in idioms — those modes of expression peculiar to a language (or dialect) which frequently defy logical and grammatical rules. Without idioms English would lose much of its variety and humor both in speech and writing.
Idioms can be quite clear (in general; come out; at first; the root of all evil), or pretty unclear (on end; pack it in; high and low; hard cash). Some idioms have proper names in them (a Jack of all trades; Uncle Sam), some other idioms are comparisons (as clear as a bell; as the crow flies). Proverbs and sayings are idioms, too (every cloud has a silver lining; still waters run deep).
For my work I have chosen useful idioms that native speakers use frequently in their everyday life. These idioms are accepted as part of everyday speech and undoubtedly are of great practical value to you. Many other idioms, though they are often interesting and colorful, are not that necessary in your everyday conversational English.

I think the fact that a person possesses a good vocabulary does not mean that he sounds like a native speaker. The mentality of a nation is expressed not only in grammatically correct sentences but in a variety of phrases that depict peculiarities of history and culture.

I think that I can use many of inter idioms in my speech. I like them.

So to be an interesting interlocutor you should acquire the idioms that make speech lively and bright.

The list of the used literature

1. Richard A. Spears, “American Idioms Dictionary”.
2. Dubrovin M., «Russian-English Idioms», Moskow, “Prosveshcheniye”,1995
3. Dean Curry “Illustration American idioms”, published by The Materials Branch English Language Programs Division United States Information Agency, Washington, 1994.
4. “Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of English Idioms”, edited by Helen Warren, Oxford University Press, 1994
5. M. J. Murphy “ Test yourself on English idioms”, Moskow, 1968
6. Richard A. Spears “Essential American Idioms”, dictionary
7. James Rogers “The dictionary of cliches”
8. V. H.Collins“ A book of English Idioms”
9. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms, Longman Group limited, 1979
10. Roges G. The dictionary of Cliches.New York. 1985
11. Spears Richard A. Essential American Idioms. National textbook company. 1991

Tezis
Taqyryby: «Ag'ylshyn idioma a'leminde»
Avtor:Tu'sipqalieva Gu'lfairy'z
Synyp: 10 a
Jetekshisi: Djy'ldieva B.A ag'ylshyn tili pa'ninin' mug'alimi, «I.Taimanov atyndag'y orta mektep»
G'ylymi jetekshisi: Atyray' qalasy Halel Dosmuhamedov atyndag'y pedagogikalyq y'niversiteti Kapakova Altyn Djy'magazievna
Sektsiia: ag'ylshyn tili
O'zektiligi:Kez kelgen ulttyn' idiomasynda adam danalyg'y, ry'hy men ta'jiribesi jinaqtalg'an. Sondyqtan, frazeologizmderdi bily', tildi u'ireny' g'ana emes, sonymen qatar a'detter men salt-da'stu'r, du'nietanym men adamdardyn' ko'zqaras joldaryn jaqsy tu'siny'ge, oilay' ta'silin damyty'g'a ko'mektesedi.
Maqsaty :Zerttey' ja'ne ag'ylshyn tili frazeologiiasyn talday', sondai-aq frazeologiia teoriiasynyn' negizgi tu'sinikterin ju'ieley', shetel tilin jaqsy tu'siny'ge yqpal ety'.Oqy'shylardyn' idiomalyq o'rnekterdi paidalany' qundylyg'yn anyqtay'.
Mindetteri: 1.Frazeologizmderdin' ma'nin zerttey'
2. A'r tu'rli taqyryptar boiynsha frazeologizmderdin' jiktely'in anyqtay'.
3. Oqy'shylardyn' idiomalardy paidalany'g'a nazaryn ay'dary'.
4. Zerttelgen materialdy ju'ieley' ja'ne talday'
Zerttey' bo'limi: ag'ylshyn frazeologiiasy (frazeologizmderdin') uqsastyqtar men aiyrmashylyqtary.
Jan'alyg'y:Bul jumys ag'ylshyn tili sabaqtarynda ony paidalany'g'a mu'mkindik beredi paidaly ja'ne qyzyqty taqyryptar bolmaq
Usynys: Jalpy bilim beretin mekteptin' oqy' bag'darlamasy til men'gery'din' belgili bir den'geiin qamtamasyz etedi. Lingvistikanyn' keibir bag'yttary leksikologiia, stilistika jetkiliksiz qamtamasyz etilgen. Sizdin' leksikany turaqty tolyqtyry' qatar, siz baisaldy, onyn' so'iley' turaqty quramalarynan baiyty' ty'raly alan'datty kerek ekenin ku'ma'n joq — maqsatty til frazeologizmderdin'
Qorytyndy:Frazeologizmderdin' basty maqsaty — tilgearnaiy aiqyndyqpen, biregei erekshelik, naqtylyq ja'ne beinelilik beredi.
Qoldanylg'an a'debietterdin' tizimi:
1. Ky'nin A.V. Frazeologiia sovremennogo angliiskogo iazyka. — M.: Mejdy'narodnye otnosheniia, 1996.
2. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
3. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Tezis
Tema: «V mire angliiskih idiom»
F.I y'сhenika: Klass:Ty'sipkalieva Gy'lfairy'z, 10a klass «SSH.im.I.Taimanova»
Ry'kovoditel proekta:Djy'ldieva Bibigy'l Askarovna.y'сhitel angliiskogo iazyka, «SSH.im.I.Taimanova»
Nay'сhnyi ry'kovoditel: Atyray'skii pedagogiсheskii y'niversitet im H.Dosmy'hammedova, dotsent kafedry angliiskogo iazyka Kapakova Altyn Djy'magazievna
Sektsiia: angliiskii iazyk
Akty'alnost: V idiomah liy'bogo naroda skontsentrirovany my'drost, dy'h i opyt naroda. Poэtomy' znanie idiom pomojet ne tolko v izy'сhenii iazykov, no i ly'сhshemy' ponimaniiy' obraza myslei, privyсhek, traditsii, mirovozzreniia i haraktera naroda.
TSel:Iissledovanie i analiz frazeologizmov angliiskogo iazyka,sistematizatsiia osnovnyh poniatii teorii frazeologii, sposobstvy'iy'shih bolee gly'bokomy' izy'сheniiy' inostrannogo iazyka.Opredelit znaсhenie y'potrebleniia frazeologiсheskih vyrajenii v y'stnoi reсhi shkolnikov.
Zadaсhi:1. Izy'сhit znaсheniia idiom.
2. Vyiavit klassifikatsiiy' idiom po raznym temam.
3. Privleсh odnoklassnikov k y'potrebleniiy' idiom v reсhi.
4. Sistematizirovat i analizirovat izy'сhennyi material
Issledovatelskaia сhast: shodstva i razliсhiia frazeologizmov (idiom) angliiskogo iazyka.
Novizna: dannaia rabota by'det polezna i interesna tem, сhto pozvolit y'сhashimsia nashei shkoly aktivno ispolzovat ee na y'rokah angliiskogo iazyka
Predlojenie:Y'сhebnaia programma obsheobrazovatelnoi shkoly daet opredelennyi y'roven znanii po iazyky'. No nedostatoсhno izy'сhaiy'tsia nekotorye oblasti iazykoznaniia, leksikologii, stilistiki. Ne vyzyvaet somneniia, сhto pomimo regy'liarnogo popolneniia slovarnogo zapasa, ny'jno samym sereznym obrazom zabotitsia ob obogashenii svoei reсhi y'stoiсhivymi slovosoсhetaniiami – idiomami izy'сhaemogo iazyka
Vyvod: Takim obrazom, ia sdelala vyvod, сhto osnovnoe naznaсhenie idiom — pridanie reсhi osoboi vyrazitelnosti, nepovtorimogo svoeobraziia, metkosti i obraznosti.
Spisok ispolzy'emoi literaty'ry:
4. Ky'nin A.V. Frazeologiia sovremennogo angliiskogo iazyka. — M.: Mejdy'narodnye otnosheniia, 1996.
5. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
6. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Thesis

Theme: “In theworld of English idioms”
Athor: Tusipkalieva G, 10th form pupil of the secondary school by I.Taimanova.
Supervisor: the teacher of English language, Dzhuldieva B.A. secondary school by I.Taimanova
Science supervisor: Atyrau Pedagogical University named by Kh.Dosmukhamedova, pedagogical science of English Kapakova A.Zh
Section: English language
Topicality:In the idiom of any nation concentrated wisdom, spirit and experience of the people. Therefore, knowledge of idioms will help not only in language learning, but also a better understanding of ways of thinking, habits, traditions, outlook and character of the people.
Aim: Research and analysis of phraseology in English, also the systematization of the basic concepts of the theory of phraseology, promoting a better understanding of a foreign language. Determine the value of the use of idiomatic expressions in speech students.
Objectives:
1. To study the value of idioms.
2. Identify the classification of idioms on different topics.
3.Attract classmates to use idioms in their speech.
4. To organize and analyze the studied material
Research part:similarities and differences of phraseology (idioms) English.
Novelty:This work will be useful and interesting topics that will allow students to our school to actively use it for English lessons
Conclusion:So I concluded that the main purpose of idioms — giving special expressiveness of speech, unique originality, accuracy and imagery.
Suggestion:The curriculum of a comprehensive school provides a certain level of knowledge of the language. There is no doubt that in addition to regular replenishment of your vocabulary, you need to seriously worry about the enrichment of his speech stable combinations — the target language idioms
The used literature:
7. Ky'nin A.V. Frazeologiia sovremennogo angliiskogo iazyka. — M.: Mejdy'narodnye otnosheniia, 1996.
8. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
9. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Retsenziia na nay'сhno-issledovatelsky'iy' raboty' «V mire angliiskih idiom»
Ty'sipkalievoi Gy'lfairy'z

Nay'сhno-issledovatelskaia rabota «V mire angliiskih idiom» Ty'sipkalievoi Gy'lfairy'z. Gy'lfairy'z zanimaetsia idiomami kak odnim iz vajnyh sposobov v izy'сhenii iazykov, no i ly'сhshemy' ponimaniiy' obraza myslei, privyсhek, traditsii, mirovozzreniia i haraktera naroda. Avtor izy'сhila bolee 50 idiom,
ih spetsifiсheskie сherty, kotorye na y'divlenie shoji so svoimi ry'sskimi analogami.

V pervoi сhasti stati rassmatrivaiy'tsia osnovnye voprosy po dannoi teme, i vkliy'сhaet v sebia obzor razliсhnyh nay'сhnyh podhodov v izy'сhenii osnovnyh frazeologiсheskih vyrajenii angliiskogo iazyka, formirovanie i obrazovanie idiom i osnovy dalneishego analiza i klassifikatsii.

Vtoraia сhast stati imeet delo s analizami i klassifikatsiei idiom. Kajdaia сhast issledovatelskoi raboty otrajaet gly'bokoe ponimanie teorii avtora i ee sobstvennye vzgliady po dannomy' voprosy'. Znaсhenie dannoi raboty sostoit iz smyslovogo i stry'kty'rnogo analiza i klassifikatsii mnogih idiom. Issledovatel prishel k osnovnym printsipam klassifikatsii idiom v sootvetstvii s opredelennymi сhastiami reсhi, v sootvetstvii s semantiсheskimi poliami. Samoi rasprostranennoi klassifikatsiei angliiskih fra¬zeologiсheskih edinits iavliaetsia tematiсheskaia.

Avtor ispolzoval traditsionnyi opisatelnyi metod i metod kritiсheskogo i statistiсheskogo analiza.

Nay'сhno-issledovatelskaia rabota iavliaetsia logiсheski horosho organizovannoi. Ona imeet polezny'iy' informatsiiy' i i svejii podhod k teme i otveсhaet vsem trebovaniiam issledovatelskoi raboty эtogo y'rovnia. Nay'сhno-issledovatelskaia rabota zasly'jivaet otliсhny'iy' otsenky'.

Retsenzent Kapakova A.D

Reviewerontheresearchpaper»In the world of English idioms»
by Tusipkalieva Gulfairuz
Research work «In the world of English idioms»Tusipkalieva Gulfairuz.Gulfairuz engaged idioms as one of the important ways in language learning, but also a better understanding of ways of thinking, habits, traditions, outlook and character of the people. The author has studied more than 50 idiomstheir specific features, which are surprisingly similar to their Russian counterparts.
In the first part of the article discusses the main issues on the topic, and includes an overview of different scientific approaches in the study of basic idiomatic expressions of the English language, the formation and the formation of idioms and a basis for further analysis and classification.
The second part of the article deals with the analysis and classification of idioms. Each part of the research work reflects a deep understanding of the theory of the author and her own views on the matter. The value of this work consists of semantic and structural analysis and classification of many idioms. The investigator came to the basic principles of idioms classification in accordance with certain parts of speech, in accordance with semantic fields. The most common classification of English fra¬zeologicheskih is thematic units.
The author has used traditional descriptive method and the critical and statistical analysis.
Research work is well organized logically. It has useful information and fresh approach to the topic and meets all the requirements of research paper at this level. The research paper deserves an excellent mark.

Reviewer Kapakova A.D

«Ag'ylshyn idioma a'leminde»taqyrybyndag'y Tu'sipqalieva Gu'lfairy'zdyn'
g'ylymi-zerttey' jumysyna pikir.

Tu'sipqalieva Gu'lfairy'zdyn' «Ag'ylshyn idioma a'leminde» taqyrybyndag'y
g'ylymi-zerttey' jumysy. Frazeologizmderdin' tilgearnaiy aiqyndyqpen, biregei erekshelik, naqtylyq ja'ne beinelilik beretini ty'raly aity'.
Avtor ely'den asa idiomalardyn' o'zindik qoldany' ta'silin lingvistikalyq qurylymda zerttep taldady.
Jumystyn' birinshi bo'liminde taqyryp boiynsha negizgi ma'selelerdi talqylaidy ja'ne ag'ylshyn tili, qalyptastyry' ja'ne frazeologizmderdin' qalyptasy'y men odan a'ri talday' ja'ne jiktey' u'shin negiz negizgi idiomalyq o'rnekterdi zerttey' a'r tu'rli g'ylymi ko'zqarastardy sholy'yn qamtidy.
Jumystyn' ekinshi bo'liminde frazeologizmderdin' klassifikatsiia toby anyqtalyp, bul jumysta avtor teren' teoriialyq tu'sinikteme berip, osy taqyryp boiynsha o'z ko'zqarasyn baiandaidy
Bul jumystyn' maqsaty zerttey' ja'ne ag'ylshyn tili idiomalaryna ma'n bere otyryp talday'. Zerttey'shi sondai-aq frazeologiia teoriiasynyn' negizgi tu'sinikterin zerttegen, shyg'armashylyq ja'ne statistikalyq analiz jasag'an.
Zettey' jumysy logikalyq turg'yda durys jolg'a qoiylg'an, uiymdastyrylg'an. Ol paidaly ma'limet ja'ne tyn' taqyryp bolyp tabylady. Bul jumysty o'te jaqsy jasalg'an dep esepteimin.

Pikir jazy'shy: Kapakova A.D