Ағылшын тілі
Сарсенбаева Нагима, Успехи, проблемы и возможности говорения на английском языке

Мақала авторы: Сарсенбаева Нагима
Жұмыс орны: Физика-математика бағытындағы Назарбаев зияткерлік мектебі
Лауазымы: мұғалім-модератор
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 23.01.2019

Успехи, проблемы и возможности говорения на английском языке

Введение

В исследовании рассматриваются вторичные источники для оценки успехов, проблем и возможностей навыков говорения на английском языке. Все результаты этого исследования служат вкладом в будущие процессы для создания и / или расширения возможностей говорить на английском языке. Рассматриваются инициативы по распространению английского языка.

Проблема

По-видимому, не существует официального обзора успехов, ограничений и возможностей инициатив по улучшению применения английского языка в контексте Казахстана. Только 2% населения Казахстана хорошо владеет английским языком [2, с. 1, 5]. Уровень владения английским языком для выпускников школ в некоторых регионах ниже желаемого национального уровня [10]. Эффект языковой политики, направленной на решение этих проблем, освещен вместе с их недостатками и связанными с этим возможностями.

Вопрос исследования

В этой статье рассматриваются следующие вопросы: во-первых, какие успехи говорения на английском языке были зарегистрированы в Казахстане? Этот вопрос важен, поскольку подчеркивает результаты государственных и частных реформ, направленных на расширение использования английского языка, потому что Казахстан все больше интегрируется с остальным миром. Во-вторых, каковы критические препятствия, с которыми сталкиваются граждане в разговоре на английском языке в Казахстане? Значение этого вопроса заключается в том, что он помогает пролить свет на индивидуальные и корпоративные слабости и угрозы, которые стоят на пути качественного говорения на английском языке в контексте исследования. В-третьих, какие возможности существуют для улучшения английского языка в Казахстане? Этот вопрос поддерживает стремление наметить путь вперед в использовании английского языка в этой стране.

Литературный обзор

Казахстан — относительно молодая нация, которая подвергается воздействию глобальных политических и экономических сил, включая новые языковые влияния и ассоциации [7]; [21]; [17]; [28, с. 521]; [26, с. 212]. Отсутствуют возможности для преподавателей английского языка участвовать в соответствующих мероприятиях по профессиональному развитию, которые повысят уровень владения языком, а у изучающих английский язык в Казахстане мало возможностей для общения в англоязычном мире [10, с. 257]. Статьи 7, 19 и 93 Конституции Казахстана [13] гарантируют, что импульс в развитии языка предоставляется казахскому языку, за которым следует русский язык. На казахском языке говорят за национальные интересы, но большинство населения говорит на русском [8, с. 185]: [30, с. 39]; [9]. Юридически это объясняет низкое проникновение английского языка в общество. Кроме того, массовые внешние миграции после обретения независимости истощали население и усугубляли этнический дисбаланс [14] и еще более подавляли изучение английского языка.

Правительство инициировало программы реформ для развития экономики и ее жизненно важных секторов, включая языки [7]. В указе от 29 июня 2011 года № 110 Казахстан планирует увеличить долю населения страны, которая говорит по-английски на 5% каждые три года до 2020 года [3]. В стратегии Казахстана 2030 говорится, что к 2030 году потомки смогут говорить на казахском, русском и английском языках в равной степени  [18]. Несмотря на эти правовые основы, механизм, который побуждает людей изучать и владеть языком, является экономической полезностью и необходимостью [14]. В литературе отражены некоторые положительные результаты этих инициатив, хотя и с недостатками.

Развитие глобального бизнеса ввело английскую терминологию непосредственно в казахский и русский языки. Некоторые термины не имеют перевода и используются так, как заимствованы. Например,  «мониторинг» и «менеджер». Тем не менее, слова укоренились и используются в обществе, в том числе в школах. В соответствии с этим, уровень грамотности населения составляет 99,8% на русском и казахском языках для населения Казахстана. Это важно, потому что есть показатель того, где люди, говорят по-английски, и это городские районы [7].

Английский язык появляется на официальных и коммерческих знаках [15]. Это дает возможность людям читать по-английски, но, возможно, не способствует говорению. В этой связи вся среда школы нуждается в «форматировании, чтобы расширить возможности слушать и говорить на английском языке» [3, с. 14]. Более того, [5] утверждает, что преобразование школ в обучении на английском языке по-прежнему является проблемой.

Признаки эффективности реализации государственной языковой политики начали появляться еще в 2011 году. Согласно [24], английский язык понимается 15,4 процентами, а пишут и свободно читают всего 10,2%. Английская компетентность развивается медленно, но неуклонно. В последние годы были зарегистрированы некоторые интересные достижения. Например, с 2012 по 2013 год [12] утверждали, что Казахстан улучшился во владении английском языком с 31,74 до 43,47, скачок составил +11,73.

Несмотря на обнадеживающие и не столь обнадеживающие аспекты, есть возможности улучшения говорения на английском в Казахстане. Во-первых, расходы правительства на образование в 2009 году составили 3,1% от роста внутреннего продукта [7]. Правительство Казахстана обязывает государственных служащих знать английский язык [27, с. 42-58]. Были предприняты инициативы по продвижению английского языка в начальных и средних школах [23, с. 256]. Первый президент Республики Казахстан призвал молодых людей хорошо овладеть казахским, русским и английским языками, чтобы стать конкурентоспособными в мире [23]; [20, с. 42]; [29].

В 2016 году правительство Казахстана провело трехъязычную политику в некоторых учебных заведениях. Учителя в этих школах обязаны преподавать,  используя ресурсы на английском языке, даже если они владеют английским языком на базовом уровне. В то время как, этот переход к трехьязычию может проходить не безболезненно [25], ясно, что правительство серьезно относится к реализации цифр, данных в Постановлении № 110 от июня 2009-2011 года.

Правительство Казахстана совместно с Кембриджским университетом инициировало реформу учебной программы, чтобы преподавание осуществлялось на казахском, русском и английском языках [6, с. 45]. Кроме того, «Автономная образовательная организация», Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы [1] нанимают международных учителей, чтобы обеспечить доступ к местным и опытным пользователям английского языка [1, с.32] в ограниченном наборе школ. Тем не менее, организации начали обучать местное население говорить на английском языке. Например, Британский Совет, который предлагает тестирование APTIS и IELTS. К подобным предприятиям относятся InterPress, англоязычный клуб Mortimer [16] и различные частные организации, разбросанные по всей стране.

Методика

Это исследование рассматривает использование английского языка в трехъязычном контексте. Был применён качественный подход, который является наиболее подходящим в данном исследовании, относительно применения языка, в частности, разговорной речи и коммуникации. Кроме того, этот подход является естественным подспорьем для анализа последствий реформ, относящихся к разговорной речи и коммуникации, препятствий и возможных вариантов будущего продвижения английского языка.

Сбор данных

В качестве источника данных для этого исследования был проведен обзор соответствующей литературы. Основные источники информации взяты с библиотечного портала Назарбаев Университет и правительственных сайтов. Были извлечены убедительные сведения об успехах, препятствиях и возможностях. Были отмечены контекстуально соответствующие методы расчета и оценки. Исходные данные были синтезированы и обсуждены, после чего были сделаны рекомендации.

Результаты

Обзор литературы показал, что ландшафт англоязычия в Казахстане усеян рассказами нескольких высококвалифицированных и преуспевающих людей, в основном работающих переводчиками, компетентными в английском языке, например «Русский переводчик в Милане для Экспо 2015» [22]. Кроме того, существует потребность в обучении на английском языке из-за растущего спроса на знание английского языка сотрудниками, студентами и иммигрантами. Конечным результатом является то, что цена за занятие этих услуг довольно высока. Частные преподаватели привлекают клиентов, которые хотят изучать английский язык лицом к лицу или онлайн.

Исследование установило, что, хотя каждый студент в университете в Казахстане проходит курс обучения английскому языку не менее двух академических лет, средние школы, по-видимому, являются наиболее активными центрами для говорения на английском языке на повседневной основе. Тем не менее, говорение обычно ограничивается временем урока, после которого учащиеся переключаются на разговор на казахском или русском языках. Конечно, за исключением какой-то музыки, большинство медиа-станций в Казахстане транслируют на казахском и русском языках, обеспечивая полезный, но ограниченный доступ к английскому языку.

Правительство поддерживает реформы, о чем свидетельствует президент, который утверждал, что 85% книг на земле на английском языке; научный прогресс документирован на английском языке; В Казахстане работают 3500 иностранных компаний, и местные жители нуждаются в английском для общения с ними и использования своего оборудования [29]. Более того, Казахстан участвует в международных организациях, таких как АБР, ФАО и МВФ [7], где английский является пересекающимся языком, поэтому обучение говорению и написанию может снизить стоимость ведения бизнеса. К тому же, создание Назарбаев интеллектуальных школ и Назарбаев университета призвано ускорить способность эффективно общаться на английском языке. Кроме того, правительство стремится перейти от кириллицы к латинскому алфавиту, несмотря на прогнозируемую высокую стоимость изменения [4, с. 185]. Это будет способствовать развитию использования английского языка в Казахстане.

Обсуждение

Инициатива по повышению уровня владения английским языком включает в себя многоуровневые заинтересованные стороны, включая правительство, население в целом и международные заинтересованные стороны. Для достижения быстрого роста использования английского языка необходима согласованная, последовательная программа реализации. В то время как легко дать политическую инструкцию для людей говорить на трех языках, существует множество факторов, которые необходимо сбалансировать. Например, людям нужно постоянно напоминать о трехъязычной политике и необходимости соблюдать ее. Без напоминания население обычно использует казахский и русский языки. Поскольку языковая политика уходит своими корнями в правительство, успех или неудача внедрения ложится на правительство. Хотя намерение указов и законов является хорошим, кажется, что нет достаточной политической воли для того, чтобы население Казахстана действительно говорило на английском. В целом проблема состоит в том, чем люди окружены в повседневной жизни. Например, примечания и названия зданий даны на кириллице на казахском или русском языках; библиотеки не имеют книг на английском языке; СМИ транслируют фильмы, мультфильмы и телепередачи в основном на казахском и русском языках. Такая же ситуация относится и к радиостанциям, телевидению, газетам и интернету. Говорят, что средства массовой информации формируют общественное мнение, если в средствах массовой информации не будут внесены изменения для интеграции английского языка в нашу жизнь, ситуация останется прежней. Городские районы являются наиболее вероятными драйверами статистики об использовании английского языка, поскольку они являются международными пунктами въезда и выезда в страну и из страны, и в них много государственного и частного бизнеса. Неудивительно, что желание овладеть английским языком и практикой развивается разными темпами относительно друг друга, а в некоторых случаях и в противоположных направлениях. Более того, много денег тратится через формальные системы, чтобы преподавать английский язык, и все же люди стремятся к частному обучению. Это указывает на неэффективность и непродуктивность в формальном секторе, которые должны помочь людям хорошо говорить на английском. С другой стороны, существует несколько серьезных формальных возможностей говорить на английском внутри страны. Даже в учебных заведениях разговоры происходят в основном на казахском или русском языках. Более того, то, за что платят люди по неофициальным соглашениям, может не всегда давать ощутимые результаты.

В заключении, это эссе описало успехи, проблемы и возможности, связанные с использованием английского языка в контексте, в котором доминируют казахский и русский языки. Успешная реализация языковой политики и инициативы достигнута, но предстоит еще многое сделать для того, чтобы население стало умело говорить на английском. Наибольшая инертность к говорению на английском, по-видимому, находится во взрослом населении. Однако есть большая надежда на то, что новое поколение заговорит на английском языке, на глобальном конкурентном уровне. Рекомендуется сосредоточиться на развитии навыков говорения на английском языке среди молодежи Казахстана. Открыть для них многочисленные возможности для обучения за рубежом. Создавать пространства и время, чтобы говорить на английском, даже если они оплачиваются налогоплательщиком. Снабдить большим количеством книг, фильмов и другими средствами массовой информации на английском языке и равномерно передавать их содержание на телевидении и радио, как это делается для казахского и русского языков.

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Retrieved from http://repository.enu.kz/handle/123456789/6379

  1. Toktarova, A. (2015, December). The role of English in the modern world. Paper presented at the international scientific/practical conference of students and undergraduates: United Nations Organization: Global diplomacy in a changing world, Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsouz, Karaganda.
  2. United Nations development program (UNDP). Human development report 2004. Kazakhstan, Education for all: A key goal for the new millennium. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford; 2004.
  3. Yakavets, N. (2014). Reforming society through education for gifted children: The case of Kazakhstan. Research Papers in Education29(5), 513-533.
  4. Zhumzhumina, A. (2013, December 1). Nazarbayev calls Kazakhstan to learn English. TengriNews. Retrieved from https://en.tengrinews.kz/edu/Nazarbayev-calls-Kazakhstan-to-learn- English-24393/
  5. Pons, A., Amoroso, J., Herczynski, J., Kheyfets, I., Lockheed, M., & Santiago, P. (2015). OECD Reviews of School Resources.
  6. Sarsenbayeva N. K., Avasi V. Success, challenges and opportunities in speaking English in Kazakh and Russian languages’ context. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328496626_SUCCESSES_CHALLENGES_AND_OPPORTUNITIES_IN_SPEAKING_ENGLISH_IN_KAZAKH-AND_RUSSIAN_LANGUAGES’_CONTEXT Труды Республиканской научно-методической конференции «Казахстанская школа в условиях обновления содержания образования» Казахстан, Тараз; 2018

 

 

Ағылшын тілі
Байжігіт Алытанай Дәулетбекқызы, Инновационные методы обучения английского языка

Мақала авторы: Байжігіт Алытанай Дәулетбекқызы
Жұмыс орны: Оңтүстік Қазақсатн көпсалалы колледжі
Лауазымы: Ағылшын тілі пәнінің оқытушысы, директордың тәрбие ісі жөніндегі орынбасары
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 08.01.2019

Инновационные методы обучения английского языка

INNOVATIONAL METHODS OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGES

Abstract:

In this article the author examines the innovational methods of teaching English in schools. It shows how this method can affect the role of the teacher and the student in practical classes. This method develops mental ability of the student that allows to analyze the learning process.

 Keywords: innovational methods, secondary school, valuable teaching aid, motivation, educational practice, approach to education, communication skills, learning experience.

Ключевые слова: инновационные методы, средняя школа, ценное учебное пособие, мотивация, учебная практика, подход к образованию, коммуникативные навыки, опыт обучения.

 

In the world English is an international language. Nowadays English is by far the most widely used. Learning English in the secondary school needs general principles where every pupils and teachers must follow to it. Broadly, English is likely to be taught in tree types of situation at secondary level. The teacher may be dealing with a class of students who are learning English solely because the school system demands it, with anything between one and five periods a week to contend with, and very little strong motivation. Alternative students may be quite strongly motivated in foreign languages situations, perhaps they anticipate having to use it for university level work, or because there is an obvious role for English is to play in the community outside school. Usually with classes of this kind the teacher has quite a number of periods, between three and eight, say, to use every week. Finally, three is the situation in which English is a medium for all or part of the instruction in the school. In circumstances like this the teacher is obviously able to develop more advanced work than in the other two situations. In classroom management and organization the same principles apply to all three types of situations, but the appropriative goals each course will vary according to its type.

The characteristic secondary school class is large (anything upwards of twenty five students), and because of its size, it usually reflected a wide range of ability. Some would say that it is also characteristically unmotivated for had in learning a language, and it is certainly true that there are situations in the world in which the reasons for learning English are not self-evident, so that students may well feel less commitment to language work than to say geography or physics. The school cannot overcome single handed problems which arise from administrative decisions, and if the wrong languages are being taught to the wrong people in the wrong size of class for the wrong periods of time, it is not the teacher or the pupils who should be blamed for the failure of the system to produce fluent English sparkers. But at the same time there are many ways in which the teacher can make the best of the situation that hi is faced with, especially if he bears in mind that there is no teacher in the world who is satisfied with the conditions which he is asked to teach in. the teacher’s duty sure that this his teaching is appropriative to his class. That is organized systematically, and that it is exiting. These three features interlock with each other, but it is worth nothing that, while the first two are easiest to attain, they are probably less often pursued than excitement. Yet a teacher who uses appropriative and well organized materials usually has little difficulty in generating enthusiasm in his class. Let us examine each of these ideas in a little more detail.

How should we teach grammar? Do we need to teach it at all? Here are two rather different approaches:

  1. a) divided the world of the English languages up into manageable bite sized chunks, and then introduce these to the students, one chunk per lesson, so that they gradually and systematically accumulate a complete of the language. B) create an environment where a lot of language , known and unknown, is met (mainly when doing speaking and listening task) and where the student are helped with new language only when they already have some curiosity or questions about it.

Both the above represent how some teachers work with grammar in class. Many teachers I know regularly do both. In the first approach, we need a methodology that finds ways to “present” or “input” small pieces of language that have previously been selected by the teacher exemplify particular structures. Each new item will then be practiced until the students are familiar with it, revised at future dates and eventually incorporated into the larger body of languages that has previously been presented and practiced. This is sometimes called “PPP” (presentation. Practice, production).

I can plan the lesson. But how can I plan a day, a month, and a term? There are two main considerations:

What will I teach (i.e. what is the syllabus?)

How will the separate items be sequenced (i.e. what is the timetable)?

A syllabus provides a longer term overview. It lists the contents of a course and puts the separate items in an order. In some school the syllabus may simply be the course book get to unit 17 half terms. In others there may be a much more detailed requirement. A syllabus can be mainly grammatical or functional or lexical. Alternatively, it may be based on skills work (e.g. speaking and listening), or it may contain a mixture of work on systems and skills. Some syllabuses describe course content in terms of topics or tasks. Having syllabus can be a great help, setting out clearly what you as a teacher are expected to cover with your class. It can be a burden, too, if it is unrealistic for your students in terms of what they need or are likely to achieve within a certain time.

The day today, week to week decisions about how to interpret a syllabus into a series of lessons are usually wholly or partly the teacher’s job. This process typically involves you looking at a school syllabus or a course book contents page and typing to map out how you will cover the content in the time available to you, in selecting items from the syllabus and writing them into appropriate spaces on a plan. This is a timetable your translation of the syllabus requirements into a balanced and interesting series of lessons. Timetable is usually written out in advance (some school required them months ahead) and usually by the time “main” teacher of a class. In some places a head of department or director of studies may provide you with a pre written timetable, though this is unusual. A timetable also enables other teachers to understand what work is being done in your class. The information it provides may be especially important if another teacher shares your class with you, if you are ill or absent one day, or if your director is concerned about your class any way. It is also useful for your students to know what they will be doing. The timetable should give others a clear idea of what work was planned for a particular lesson and also show how that fits into the overall shape of the week and the course.

A good store of words is crucial for understanding and communication. A major aim of most teaching programmers is to help students to gain a large vocabulary of useful words. In every lesson, you have to introduce new words and practice them, making clear the meanings and the ways each can be used. In the page that follow you will learn how to introduce vocabulary, how to practice it in a variety of ways and how to revise it. There are two main ways to present (introduce) vocabulary. You can either show the meaning in some way or you can use language that the students already know in order to make clear the meaning of the new lexical item. There is a third way, too, but one that is little used. You can present meanings through sounds. This third way is also described, as it offers yet another approach to the problem of introducing difficult words. During most lessons, you will use both of the first two ways. There are several techniques that may be used, whether you are working linguistically or ostensively. Some words are very easy to present (nouns, verbs, adverbs, and abjectives). Some are more difficult because they present abstract notions. Yet other words have no independent meaning, and so they cannot be presented in the same ways.

The most valuable teaching aid, worldwide, is a blackboard or other good writing and drawing surface. Sketches, diagrams and table enable teachers to avoid excessive use of the mother tongue, while prompting meaningful oral contributions from the students. In many ways, a blackboard it is apparent that their attention is on what the teacher has written or drawn. Blackboards are sometimes neglected, so much so that the chalk is scarcely visible to the class. Washing them with a sponge helps, but if the surface is worn there is only one thing to do. You must by a tin paint and renew it. Blackboard paint is cheap and easy to apply and dries in an hour. There is a choice between black and a restful green color.

The organization of pair work or group work is a management task, but one which presents no real difficulties. However, in many societies a teacher centered approach to education is the norm. To introduce a pedagogy which is in conflict with current educational practice may be difficult at first. And yet, if pedagogy is to be effective is should be in learners to interact with others, at easy and conversing reasonably fluently. Therefore, teachers must offer practice in speaking and the communicating. To engage in interaction, the students need to talk to each other. In teacher centered classes, there just is not enough time for everyone to make a significant contribution. If we disregard the new chorus responses in a drill, the average student in a large class will probably only speak for a total of 10 or 15 seconds. Extra time for talking can only be gained if they all talk at the same time for parts of the lesson. You may imagine that to have all the students talking at the same time will be a noisy business. This is not case. A repetition drill is far noisier than simultaneous pair work. When learners talk to an immediate neighbor they tend to speak quietly. The effect is of a continuous murmuring; it is good noise, a learning noise.

Teacher who have never before relinquished total control have to adopt new attitudes, thinking more about the learning experience. And their pedagogical role is quite different during these new lesson phases. During pair work the teacher has two roles. One is to act as monitor, listening to a few of the pairs and nothing any persistent errors. Pair work will receive attention another time, perhaps at the start of the next lesson. The second role is that of resource person, providing help, information and feedback upon request.

Through games, learners practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures. Motivation is enhanced, too, by the play and the competition. An added benefit is that learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. They acquire language unconsciously, with their whole attention engaged by the activity, in much the same way as they acquired their mother tongue. Information gap activities are dealt with in another chapter. Here we are concerned with simple games that require little preparation but can be used for the revision and practice of various language points. Useful though these games are as time fillers, they are effective teaching learning instruments. They a proper place in your lesson plants, two or three times weekly. We begin by looking at letter and number games. Then we move on to word games before looking at games that involve speech, rather than single words.

 

Литература

  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.

3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994.

4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009

 References

  1. David Cross. Practical handbook of language teaching. United Kingdom-1992.
  2. John Egyleston. Teaching English as a foreign language. London-1978.

3.Adrian Underhill. Leading teaching. Great Britain -1994.

4.Kevin D. Besnoy, Lane W. Clarke, High-Tech Teaching Success! A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Innovative Technology in Your Classroom, Prufrock Press, Inc. October 1, 2009

 

Ағылшын тілі
Кожагалиева Гульдана Женисовна, Ресурсное обеспечение уроков английского языка

Мақала авторы: Кожагалиева Гульдана Женисовна
Жұмыс орны: ГУ "Аулиекольская школа-гимназия имени Султана Баймагамьетова отдела образования акимата Аулиекольского района"
Лауазымы: учитель английского языка
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 25.12.2018

Ресурсное обеспечение уроков английского языка

Нужно, чтобы дети, по возможности,  учились самостоятельно, а учитель руководил этим самостоятельным процессом и давал для него качественный и интересный материал.

К.Д.Ушинский

На пороге ХХІ века урок остается в наибольшей степени общеустановленной формой обучения в современной школе. Тем не менее, его значение в организации образовательного процесса переживает преобразования. Учитывая обновленное содержание образования с новыми требованиями к школьному обучению, современный урок решает задачи, направленные на развитие личности, на образование у обучающихся таких навыков,  которые позволят ему самостоятельно изучать новые знания, овладеть новыми видами деятельности и, в результате, быть успешным человеком в жизни. Для этого перед учителем стоит важная задача – обеспечить ученика всеми необходимыми ресурсами для качественного усвоения новых знаний. И, как правило, образование станет ресурсом развития личности лишь в том случае, если образовательные действия станут инициативными и превосходящими по потенциалу, побуждающими к развитию личности[1]. Что же такое ресурсное обеспечение урока? Ресурсное обеспечение урока — это материальные, духовные, временные и другие средства развития человеческого потенциала, среды и деятельности человека [2]. Но главным фактором и ресурсом, обеспечивающим качество образования, является урок и его содержательность. Поэтому, планируя свои уроки английского языка, я тщетно продумываю все этапы урока, акцентируя внимание на потребности и интересы учащихся.  В процессе реализации основных требований к уроку по обновленному содержанию образования я  всегда в поисках ответа на самый главный вопрос: «Как организовать учебную деятельность, построить урок, чтобы процесс обучения был качественным и  запоминающимся?» Для этого я привлекаю такие ресурсы урока, как: наглядные и технические средства обучения. На мой взгляд, с ними урок богаче, ярче, образнее. С их помощью на своих уроках я оказываю эмоциональное воздействие своим учащимся, они способствуют лучшему запоминанию материала, повышается интерес к предмету, обеспечивается  прочность знаний. По сравнению с предыдущим учебным годом, в  нынешних 5 классах, которые годом ранее обучались по ГОСО 2012 года, качество знаний повысилось на 22%. Также повысилась мотивация учащихся на учебно-познавательную деятельность, в разы улучшилась  культура работы с информацией, наблюдается активность в обучении английского языка в целом. Так как ИКТ стал неотделимым «викарием»  в повышении интереса и мотивации учащихся к изучению предмета и развивает наглядно-образное мышление, я использую ИКТ. Использование ИКТ дает мне возможность активизировать познавательную, мыслительную и самостоятельную деятельность учащихся. Самым главным ресурсом для меня является компьютер, который помогает в организации и проведении эффективных уроков, позволяющим повысить качество обучения и контроль учебного процесса в целом. В частности, использование презентаций в учебном процессе дает мне возможность интенсифицировать запоминание знаний, организовать и проводить уроки на качественно новом уровне. Учитывая типологию каждого ученика по восприятию материала, использование слайд-шоу, графиков, анимации, рисунков и диаграмм,  при необходимости воспроизведение отдельных звуков разрешают ряд вопросов, таких как использование наглядного материала, повышение мотивации к учебному процессу в целом. Равным образом мною всеобъемлюще используется сеть Интернет. Во всех этапах урока начиная с организационного момента, коллаборативного настроя и.т.д. сеть интернет помогает эффективно разработать урок, общедоступно излагать материал, экономить время речевой практики, организовать такие формы работ с учащимися как, индивидуальная, групповая и фронтальная работы, вести контроль усвоения новых знаний и самое главное – вовлечь в процесс обучения с творческим подходом. Часто при подготовке к своим урокам в качестве основного ресурса я использую следующие сайты: http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish (английский для детей – стихи, сказки, песенки, азбука, загадки, пословицы, договорки, книги, обучающие игры, форум и многое другое), http://school-collection.edu.ru (единая коллекция цифровых образовательных ресурсов), islcollective, busyteacher, onestopenglish,  eflsensei.com (огромное количество онлайн материалов, карточек, с возможностью распечатать) [3]. В планировании краткосрочных планов руководствуюсь планами системно-методического комплекса, подготовленного в рамках обновления содержания среднего образования. Блог трансляции опыта АОО «Назарбаев интеллектуальные школы» является передовым ресурсом при подготовке к урокам английского языка. Я адаптирую урок под каждый класс, дифференцирую задания, готовлю задания на развитие критического мышления, использую руководства по критериальному оцениванию, сборники заданий формативного оценивания, видео и презентационные ресурсы, методические рекомендации по суммативному оцениванию, формы электронного журнала, электронные версии учебников, рабочих тетрадей, руководств для учителя, учебные пособия.

В связи с появлением сети интернет социальные сети  стали неотъемлемой частью нашей жизни. Поэтому,  для меня, социальные сети стали одним из важнейших ресурсов при подготовке и проведении уроков.  Адаптируясь к нововведениям, синхронно с технологическими, коммуникативными инновациями на уроках я использую элементы популярных социальных сетей среди молодежи с целью повышения интереса к изучению английского языка. Никому не секрет, что ученики активно общаются на просторах  социальных сетей, таких как Instagram, Вконтакте, WhatsApp и с азартом вопринимают виртуальное общение. Так, я практикую рассылки лексики, аудирования и грамматики в интересной и ненавязчивой форме, рекомендую учащимся активные ссылки обучающих сайтов, делаю репосты аудио, видео материалов. Временами, на этапе выполнения домашнего задания учащимся отправляю ссылки видеофрагмента, после просмотра, которого учащимся необходимо определить правильные или неправильные утверждения, выписать определенные слова по теме, пересказать увиденное или услышанное. Практикуя данный ресурс использования социальных сетей, я заметила, что учащиеся стали самообучаться и саморегулировать процесс обучения. Данный способ способствует вызову знаний, дающий возможность учащимся вступать в активное взаимодействие со сверстниками через ненавязчивое общение в социальных сетях и затем обрабатывать, обобщать полученные знания.

Новаторской платформой и вспомогательным ресурсом для педагогов, на сегодняшний день, является образовательный портал Bilim land. Я широко применяю ресурсы Bilim Land на своих уроках, так как сайт содержит материалы по всем темам, что удобно при объяснении новой темы урока. Так же для проверки домашнего задания мне удобно использовать тестовые задания и получать мгновенный результат для корректировки знаний учащихся. При объяснении новой темы пользуюсь видеоресурсами данной платформы, которые имеются в каталоге и являются методическим активизатором новых тем. Пройдя новую тему на этапе закрепления, использую разнообразный дидактический материал, который имеется на данном сайте: тестовые задания разных уровней, богатый раздаточный материал.

Результатом обеспечения уроков английского языка хорошими ресурсами, я считаю, умение учащихся систематически работать с компьютером, интернетом, фильтрация второстепенной информации, умение заниматься проектно-исследовательской деятельностью и самое  главное повышение качества знаний. Благодаря интенсивному содержанию уроков интересными ресурсами было замечено проявление повышенного интереса к изучению английского языка, улучшился показатель участия в конкурсах и олимпиадах по английскому языку, где учащиеся показывают хорошие результаты. На мой взгляд, ресурсное обеспечение уроков английского языка должно идти в ногу со временем т.к. урок должен быть интересным и познавательным для учащихся и служить для разностороннего развития конкурентоспособной личности.

Использованная литература

  1. http://aneks.spb.ru/metodicheskie-razrabotki-posobiia-po-russkomu-iazyku/resursy-sovremennogo-uroka.html
  2. Кудрявцева Л.В. Использование телекоммуникационных проектов для формирования иноязычной социокультурной компетенции у учащихся старших классов (на примере США и России) / Л.В. Кудрявцева // Иностранный язык в школе. – 2007. – № 4. – С. 49-53.
  3. https://www.adme.ru/svoboda-sdelaj-sam/60-luchshih-sajtov-dlya-izucheniya-anglijskogo-yazyka-1111410/

Ағылшын тілі
Ауелбаева Айгерим Булатбековна, Үштілдік білім беруді ғылыми-әдістемелік тұрғыдан қолдану

Мақала авторы: Ауелбаева Айгерим Булатбековна
Жұмыс орны: Түркістан облысы, Түлкібас ауданы, С.Сейфуллин атындағыжалпы орта мектебі
Лауазымы: Ағылшын тілі пәнінің мұғалімі
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 24.12.2018

Үштілдік білім беруді ғылыми-әдістемелік тұрғыдан қолдану

Елбасымыздың «Жаңа әлемдегі жаңа Қазақстан» атты Халқына Жолдауында: “Тілдердің үштұғырлығы мәдени жобасын кезеңдеп жүзеге асыруды қолға алуды ұсынды. Қазақстан бүкіл әлемге халқы үш тілді пайдаланатын мәдениетті ел ретінде танылуға тиіс. Бұлар — қазақ тілі — мемлекеттік тіл, орыс тілі — ұлтаралық қатынас тілі және ағылшын тілі — жаһандық экономикаға ойдағыдай кіру тілі” деген салиқалы үндеуінде айтқандай, әлемдік кеңістікке енуде ағылшын тілінің маңызы зор. Ағылшын тілі — әлемдік бизнес тілі, оны меңгеру – жастарға әлем танудың кілті болмақ. Ағылшын тілін білу біздің жастарға шексіз мүмкіндіктер ашады. Ол – жаһанданудың кепілі. «Ақпараттық технология дамыған қазіргі дәуірде күн сайын дерлік ағылшын тілі дүние жүзі халықтарының тілдеріне жаңа сөздер мен ұғымдар арқылы батыл ену үстінде.

Президенттік «Тілдердің үш тұғырлылығы» бағдарламасының басты мақсаты-қазақ тілінде қысым жасау емес,керсінше оның бәсекеге қабілеттілігін орыс және ағылшын тілі дәрежесіне дейін көтеру. Оның үстіне қазақ тілінің бәсекеге қабілеті осындай міндеттерді қоюға толық мүмкіндік береді. Сондықтан, халықтың орыс тілін білу деңгейін  жоғалтпауымыз керек, ал ағылшын тілін – болашаққа жаңа даму шыңдарына бағытталған жол,себебі ол әлем мойындаған халықаралық қатынастар тілдерінің бірі. Сондықтан Н.Назарбаевтың Қазақстандықтарың өскелең ұрпағына үш тілді меңгеру: қазақ тілін мемлекеттік тіл ретінде,орыс тілін ұлтаралық қатынас тіл ретінде және ағылшын тілін халықаралық қатынас тілі ретінде білу мүмкіндігін жасауға деген ұмтылысы өте дұрыс деп ойлаймыз.

Осыған орай оқушы өзін жан-жақты дамыған, шығармашылығы мол,өз бетінше іздене алатын тұлға ретінде көрсетуі тиіс. Сол себепті оқушы бірнеше тілді меңгеруге тиіс.

Көптілді білім беру бағдарламасы аясында үштілді меңгеру  тәжірибесін жинақтап, әлемдік деңгейде көтерілуіміз керек. Бұл оқушылардың халықаралық жобаларға қатысуын кеңейту, шетелдік әріптестермен ғылыми байланыстарын нығайтуға, шетел тілдеріндегі ақпарат көздеріне қол жеткізуіне мүмкіндік береді. Елдің ертеңі өресі биік, дүниетанымы кең, кемел ойлы азаматтарын өсіру үшін бүгінгі ұрпаққа ұлттық рухани қазынаны әлемдік озық ой-пікірімен ұштастырған сапалы білім мен тәрбие берілуі қажет.

Үштілділіктің маңызын түсіне білген жанның еліміз үшін болашақтағы алары да, берері де мол. «Біз ағылшын тілін игеруде серпіліс жасауымыз керек. Қазіргі әлемнің осы «лингва франкасын» меңгеру біздің еліміздің әрбір азаматына өмірдегі шексіз жаңа мүмкіндіктерді ашады». Осынау мүмкіндіктерді игеру мақсатында орта білім беру мазмұнының жаңарту жағдайында үштілді білім беруді енгізудің тиімді жолдарын іздестіруде. Мектепте ағылшын тілін оқыту барысында қазақ тілі, орыс тілі пәндерін бірлікте алу мұғалімнің шеберлігіне байланысты. Бұл жерде өтіліп отырған бағдарламаға сай үш пәнді бірлікте ала отырып, пәнаралық байланысты жүзеге асыруға болады. Алайда дәстүрлі оқытуда тек аударма жасатумен ғана шектеліп отырсақ, қазіргі оқыту технологиясында түрлі шығармашылық бағыттағы тапсырмалар бере отырып, оқушы-субьектінің ізденісіне, яғни, жеке тұлғаның әрекетін дамытуды мақсат етудеміз.

Өз іс-тәжірибемізде оқушылардың интеллектуалдық қабілетіне түрткі болатын ойын технологиясын қолдана отырып сабақты үш тілде жүргізудің тиімділігі зор. Өнімді нәтиже беріп жүрген іскерлік ойындары: «Полиглот», «Кім тапқыр?», «Үздік тілші», «Кел, сайысайық!», «Тілдер сөйлейді» сынды тағы басқа ойындарды өткізудің үштілді меңгертудегі маңызы айрықша. Оқушыларды ойната отырып, үш тілде жүргізілген сөзжұмбақтар, анаграммалар олардың коммуникативтік құзыреттіліктері мен функционалдық сауаттылықтарын арттыруға негіз болды. Сондай-ақ, ақпараттық технологияны: электрондық оқулықтар, презентациялар, тест т.б түрлері оқушылардың қызығушылығын оятып, уақыттарын үнемдеуге, қосымша деректерді тиімді қолдануға түрткі болды. Шығармашылық жұмыстарға жетелейтін тапсырмаларды да оқушылар қызыға орындап, еркін аударма жұмыстарын жасауға дағдыланды. Мәселен, Мақал-мәтелдерді салыстыру жұмысы оқушылардың жас ерекшелігіне байланысты ұсынылып, сыныбына орай күрделеніліп отырады. Бұл тапсырмада мақал-мәтелдерді тақырып бойынша табу, үш тілде аудармасын ұсынуға болады.Бұл жерде оқушылардың сөйлеу тілдері мен сауаттылықтарына назар аударылады. Ал осы тақырып бойынша қабілеті жоғары оқушыларға шығармашылық бағыттағы тапсырма «Мақал-мәтелдердің баламасын жаз» деп ұсынуға болады.Оқушылар өздері таңдаған тақырыпта үш-тілде мақал-мәтел ойлап, баламасын жазуға талаптанады.

Үштілділікті  сабақта жүйелі түрде қолдануға болады. Мәселен,«Holidays» тақырыбын өткенде іздендіру-зерттеу бағытындағы тапсырма ұсынуға болады. Яғни, «Қазақ халық мерекелері мен Орыс және Ағылшын халық мерекелері» тақырыбы бойынша оқушылар салыстыру жұмысын жасап, тапқан деректерін топпен бірлесе отырып, үш тілде еркін баяндап беруге талаптанады. Yштілділікті  қолдану аясында оқушылардың коммуникативтік қабілеттерін, зерттеушілік әрекеттерін дамытып, салыстыру, талдау, дәлелдеу сынды дағдыларын қалыптастыруға түрткі болады. Сондай-ақ, ұқсастықтарын табу, салыстыру жұмыстары оқушылардың қызығушылығын оятады. Шығармашылық бағыттағы тапсырмалар: модель, презентация, жоба құру сынды бағытта да ұсынылуы тиіс.

Қорытындылай келгенде, болашақ жастарымыз өз тілін ардақтай отырып, заман талабы тудырып отырған үш тілде еркін сөйлеп, әлемнің кез-келген жерімен еркін байланысқа түсіп жатса еліміздің ертеңінің көркейте түсері сөзсіз. Олай болса бүгінгі талапкерлерге әлемдік кеңістікке қанат қағып, шет тілін меңгерсем деп талап білдіргендерге сәттілік тілейік.

Ағылшын тілі
Досанова Толганай Мадиевна, How to learn creatively?

Мақала авторы: Досанова Толганай Мадиевна
Жұмыс орны: Жамбыл орта мектебі
Лауазымы: ағылшын тілі мұғалімі
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 04.11.2018

How to learn creatively?

HOW TO LEARN CREATIVELY

Бұл мақалада сын тұрғысынан ойлау арқылы оқушылардың ағылшын тілін үйренудің түрлі әдіс-тәсілдері қарастырылған. Оқытушыларға қандай жолдармен үйретудің жолдары көрсетілген.

В этой статье предлагается различные методы работы для развития критического мышления у учащихся в изучении английского языка, а также каким образом можно их эффективно применять в разных группах.

Aims

To introduce you to creative aspects to learning – with a special emphasis on note-making, brainstorming and question matrixing.

Learning outcomes

It is hoped that by the end of working through this chapter you will have:

  • Realized the importance of creative learning strategies
  • Been introduced to note -making theory
  • Been introduced to note-making practice- with the emphasis on creative, pattern notes
  • Been introduced to creative assignment preparation techniques- the brainstorm and the question matrix.

Much of the advice given for us to active learning strategies, skills, techniques and practices is logical, rational and straightforward. Such techniques can turn learning and studying around for you so that your learning becomes effective, satisfying and successful. In this chapter we are taking this a step further. Logical strategies are fantastic, they will make all the difference in themselves – but really shine, to go that one step further, everyone also needs to build creatively into their learning.

Why should we be creative?

Some people do not see the need to be creative in their studies. Perhaps it just seems like more hard work, perhaps they think that their subject does not need creatively- maybe they feel that this is a whole new area that they wish would just go away and leave them alone! However, we have found that students really do benefit from creative thinking. For one thing, it can make things feel lighter, for another it stretches and develops another part of you – and this is agood thing in itself. However, we would like you to feel really positive about being creative when you study, so we have gathered a few arguments here – read them through and see what you think.

    Use all your brain

    Buzan’s work on the psychology of learning tells us that there are two parts of the brain, the logical left and the creative right. Learning strategies that are rational and logical work well with the left part of the brain, but this monotonous learning – as in monotone, one colour learning. He criticizes this learning as being ineffectual because it only utilizes one half of the brain – and this means it is both limiting and boring.

    Play with it

Graham Gibbs, in this work on teaching students to learn, has another argument that connects to creative learning strategies. Gibbs tells us that the word ‘knowledge’, which has Greek and Norse roots, actually means to ‘have sport with ideas’, that is to play with ideas. If we cannot play with the ideas with which we are engaging as students, we will never be able to use them with confidence – hence we will not make them our own.

Typically when we approach new subjects we might be over-awed by them and a natural response.

Active and significant learning

All the way through this text we place an emphasis on you becoming an active learner in control of your own learning. However, it can be very easy to feel trapped by the very nature of academic practice. How can you say what you want what you have to say it in certain way or you have to read so many things before you can even give an opinion of your own?

Carl Rogers, humanist, psychologist and teacher, addressed this by emphasizing that significant learning takes place when students reach out for what they want and need when learning.

    Common sense

    One last justification that we would like to offer for creative learning also touches on the notion of active learning – or the lack of it. Without a creative approach the student is in danger of becoming a passive learner, only using information in the way that other people have used it. Because they have not used a creative note-making system, but have passively recorded what others have said, and the way that they have said it, these students get trapped into other people’s processes.

    How can I be creative?

    Some people believe that you are either born creative or you are not – the same way that much of education is predicated upon the belief that you are either born a good student or you are not. But everyone can rehearse successful study techniques and thus learn how to be a good student.

If you have not tried such kind of techniques before, we will be asking you to change or adapt your learning style. And as always, you might find that change uncomfortable. No one likes to be uncomfortable, even more so perhaps in the educational context where for so many of us everything already feels so strange and uncomfortable. Try to reassure yourself that the discomfort will pass, and that the benefits of these strategies in terms of improvements in your ability to study and learn – and in the grades that you will get for your work – will more than compensate you for the discomfort that you are experiencing.

Literature:

  1. Н.Д. Гальскова « Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам», Москва, 2004
  2. С.Бабаева, К. Казиева – «Педагогикалық инновациялар мен педагогикалық озат технологиялар – талапшаң мұғалім еншісі»
  3. Е.С. Полат «Методы обучения на уроках английского языка» ИЯШ, 2003

Ағылшын тілі
Мыжиканова Салтанат Жумабековна, Мектепке дейінгі мекемеде «үштұғырлы тіл» саясатын жүзеге асыру

Мақала авторы: Мыжиканова Салтанат Жумабековна
Жұмыс орны: "Салтанат" бөбекжай-бақшасы МККҚ
Лауазымы: ағылшын тілі мұғалімі
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 14.10.2018

Мектепке дейінгі мекемеде «үштұғырлы тіл» саясатын жүзеге асыру

Шет тілдерін үйрену, әсіресе ағылшын тілі қазіргі – заманның қажеттілігі.
Н.Ә. Назарбаев.

Елбасымыз Н.Ә. Назарбаев «Болашақтың іргесін бірге қалаймыз!» атты Жолдауында «Қазіргі заманғы қазақстандық үшін үш тілді білу – әркімнің дербес табыстылығының міндетті шарты» деп ағылшын тілін игерудің әрбір азаматқа жаңа мүмкіндіктерді ашатынын атап өткен еді. Еліміздің экономикасы дамыған сайын ағылшын тілін меңгеру талабы да артуда. Ағылшын тілін меңгертудің басты мақсаты — тіл үйренушілердің коммуникативтік құзырлығын қалыптастыру, шет елдерде еркін қарым қатынас жасай алу, өз ойын сол тілде жеткізе алу болып табылады.
Қазіргі заманда біз шет тілін үйретуді балабақша есігінен бастаймыз. Бәрімізге белгілі, ағылшын тілін үйретуді ерте жастан бастасақ, бұл баланың коммуникативті даму біліктілігін арттырады, қызығушылығын оятуға мүмкіндік береді және де тілдік кемшіліктерді жойып, болашақта тілді тез игеруге көмектеседі. Әрі сәби кезінде алған білім жадында тез сақталады. Егер бала балабақша іргетасында өзге тілді меңгеруді бастаса, келешекте ана тіліндей таза, анық сөйлеуіне мүмкіндіктер алады.
Мектеп жасына дейінгі кезең — тілдерді үйренуге ең қолайлы кезең, осы жастағы балалардың есте сақтауы мен логикалық ойлау қабілеті жоғары болады. Біз осы кезеңді пайдаланып, балалардың жан-жақты дамуын қамтамасыз ету үшін, ағылшын тілін үйрену үшін «Салтанат» бөбекжай бақшасында «Ағылшын тілін үйренейік» үйірмесін құрдық. Бұл үйірме 3-6 жастағы балаларға арналған, аптасына екі рет жүргізіледі.
Үйірменің мақсаты:
-күнделікті күн тәртібінде ағылшын тілін қолданыс аясына енгізу, мысалы: таңертеңгілік қабылдауда ағылшынша амандасу, қалың сұрау, серуенге, түскі аста, шынықтыру шараларында, ойын іс-әрекеттерінде ауыз-екі сөйлеу барысында айтылатын қарапайым диалогты ағылшын тілінде айта білуге үйрету;
-өтпелі тақырыптар (менің балабақшам, сандар, отбасы, ойыншықтар, түстер, көліктер, жануарлар, жемістер, жиһаз, мамандықтар, жыл мезгілдері, тб) бойынша ағылшын лексикасын үйрету;
— ағылшын тілінің грамматикасының қарапайым негіздерімен таныстыру;
-тілдердің негізімен, ауызша сөйледің қарапайым дағдыларын меңгерту;
— тыңдағанды түсіну дағдыларын қалыптастыру;
-монологтік және диалогтік сөйлеу тілін дамыту;
-ағылшын сөздерін дұрыс дыбыстауға үйрету;
Үйірменің міндеті- балалардың ағылшын тілінде сөйлеу білім-білік дағдыларын қалыптастыру, тілдің коммуникативтік қызметін меңгерту. сөздік қорын, тіл байлығын дамыту, бір-бірімен қатынас жасай алуға ынталандыру, әр баланың тілге деген қызығушылығын арттыру.
Күтілетін нәтижие:
Балалардың үштілділік коммуникативтік қатынасы нығая түседі, сөздік қоры көбейеді, тіл байлығы дами түседі, бір-бірімен ағылшын тілінде қатынас жасайды, қойылған сұрақтарға жауап береді, байланыстырып сөйлеуі қалыптасады; тілді меңгеруге деген қызығушылығы арта түседі, оқу бағдарламасы жүйелі үздіксіз оқытылады, білім сапасы артады.
Қорытындылай келсек, балабақшада тілдердің үштұғырлығын дұрыс ұйымдастырып оқыту, балаларға білім беру, тәрбиелеу және дамыту міндеттерін шешуге, оларды заманауи көптілді әлем өміріне дайындауға көмектеседі. Балалардың болашақта тілдерді оңай меңгеруіне жол ашады.

Ағылшын тілі
Джулдиева Бибигуль Аскаровна, Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world

Мақала авторы: Джулдиева Бибигуль Аскаровна
Жұмыс орны: Атырау қаласы Исатай Тайманов атындағы орта мектеп
Лауазымы: ағылшын тілі пәнінің мұғалімі
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 08.10.2018

Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world

Long-term plan unit: 7.3C Natural Disasters
School: I.Taimanov
Date: Teacher name: Dzhuldieva Bibigul
Grade: 7 a,b Number present: absent:
Theme of the lesson Looking at natural disasters in Kazakhstan and around the world
Learning objectives that are achieved at this lesson 7.C2 use speaking and listening skills to provide sensitive feedback to peers
7.C6 organise and present information clearly to others
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics
Lesson objectives All learners will be able to:
• Learn 16 out of 20 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan and understand the main idea of the text level 1.
Most learners will be able to:
• Learn 19 out of 20 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan, understand the main idea and specific information of the text level 1.
Some learners will be able to:
• Learn 22 out of 27 words related to the topic.
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan, understand the main idea and specific information of the text level 2.
Assessment criteria Learners achieved the LO if they were able to match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Language objective Past Simple Tense
Intercultural awareness Learners find out about weather in different parts of the world and in Kazakhstan
Values instilled at the lesson Transparency: learners and teachers work together to develop goals and objectives of the lesson. Teacher and learners assess each other and justify the an assessment, give feedback.
Cooperation: The teacher and learners in collaboration achieve the lesson objectives and discuss the results of cooperation; feedback «teacher-student», » learner — learner » is carried out throughout the entire lesson.
Patriotism: learners learn about natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Cross-curricular links Geography: learners learn about natural disasters in different parts of Kazakhstan.
ICT skills Learners use laptops for vocabulary work.
Previous learning
Learners will be familiar with some of the vocabulary associated with natural disasters. Learners may have some knowledge of the associated problems, but they are not expected to have a thorough knowledge.
Kazakh culture Learners find out about measures taken after the disasters in Kazakhstan
Pastoral Care Student centred teaching: respect, support and scaffolding;
To create a friendly atmosphere for collaborative work.
Promote a sense of self-esteem and self-respect and respect for others among all the learners.
Health and Safety Everyday classroom precautions will ensure that safety measures are provided to prevent the exposure of electrical power cords.
Course of the lesson
Planned stages of the lesson Planned activities at the lesson Resources
Beginning:

5 min

2 min

2 min

5 min

10 min

10 min

Warming up activity
Learners watch a video and tell what familiar words and phrases they heard (topical vocabulary from the previous lesson) – mudslide, flood, heavy rains …
Some learners may be able to tell the main message of the video – what caused the mudslide in Almaty (melting of glaciers)

Teacher and learners discuss the topic and lesson objectives:
• Read about natural disasters in Kazakhstan
• Discuss what natural disasters are common in Kazakhstan, their causes and results

Teacher presents some facts about disasters in Kazakhstan and displays a table on the active board. Example: In 2005 there was a flood. Fortunately, no one died, but 25 thousand people were affected and it bought damage of 7662 $.

Reading strategy: scanning
Learners are divided into two mixed ability groups and given two short texts about other disasters in Kazakhstan. They analyze the information together and fill in the table. Then groups compare information in their tables.

Vocabulary work
Learners match the topical vocabulary in English with equivalents in Russian. For this activity learners can use online dictionaries. Wordlists are differentiated according to the level of learners.

Reading
Learners read texts “Recent major disasters and response activities” according to their level (easier, harder). Learners show their understanding by matching disasters and dates with their description. This work is done in writing.

Assessment
Learners submit their papers. Learners will achieve their learning objective if they can match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIjSuGYSlIE

Presentation slide 2

Presentation slide 3

Appendix 3

Appendix 4,5

Appendix 1,2
5 min

Reflection:
Learners put the cards with words on the board in the following order: cause – disaster – result
Cards: heavy rains, flood, houses were inundated, sharp rise in air temperature, earthquake, roads were destroyed. Reflection cards
Differentiation – how do you plan to give more support? How do you plan to challenge the more able learners? Assessment – how are you planning to check students’ learning? Critical thinking
Texts and wordlists of two levels are provided. Learners’ reading will be assessed by the teacher according to the success criteria.
Vocabulary work is peer-assessed by different groups Learners find out about cause and result relations.
Reflection
Were the lesson objectives/learning objectives realistic? Did all learners achieve the LO?
If not, why?
Did my planned differentiation work well?
Did I stick to timings?
What changes did I make from my plan and why?
Use the space below to reflect on your lesson. Answer the most relevant questions from the box on the left about your lesson.
All learners achieved the learning objectives as the reading task was differentiated. I needed some more time for reflection so next time I will leave more time for this activity.
Summary evaluation

What two things went really well (consider both teaching and learning)?
1: group work while filling in the table;

2: reading comprehension;

What two things would have improved the lesson (consider both teaching and learning)?
1: make reflection a written task;

2: grouppair work;

What have I learned from this lesson about the class or achievements/difficulties of individuals that will inform my next lesson?
Most of the students have problems with Past Simple Tense.

Appendix 1
Formative assessment
Level 1 (less able learners)

7.3C Natural Disasters
Key Learning objectives Success criteria Task
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics Students achieved the LO if they were able to
match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Read the text
Recent major disasters and response activities (easier)
In May 2003, the Zhambyl region was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.4 on the Richter scale. The earthquake affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings. The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
Flooding in east Kazakhstan in May 2001 lasted for more than one month, affecting 4,500 people and damaging roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region. The National Society of Kazakhstan supported flood victims with food, bedding and other very important things.

Match the events and their description
Event Description
1 Floods in 1993 It lasted for more than one month.
More than 13,000 people lost their homes
2 Floods in 2001 Ten lives were lost.
The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
3 Earthquake in 2003 5,500 houses were damaged.
2,383 houses were inundated.
4 Floods in 2008 It damaged roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region.
It affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings.

Appendix 2
Formative assessment
Level 2 (more able learners)

7.3C Natural Disasters
Key Learning objectives Success criteria Task
7.R2 understand specific information and detail in texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics Students achieved the LO if they were able to
match 3 out of 4 disasters and their descriptions.
Read the text
Recent major disasters and response activities (harder)
In May 2003, the Zhambyl region was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.4 on the Richter scale. The earthquake affected 43,300 people and brought devastation to housing and social infrastructure. The consequences of the earthquake showed that neither people nor the local administration, including medical centers, were prepared for such disasters.
Flooding in east Kazakhstan in May 2001 lasted for more than one month, affecting 4,500 people and damaging roads and infrastructure in 28 settlements in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region. The National Society of Kazakhstan provided immediate support to flood victims in the form of food, bedding and other very important things.

Match the events and their description
Event Description
1 Floods in 1993 It lasted for more than one month.
More than 13,000 people lost their homes
2 Floods in 2001 Ten lives were lost.
The local administration and people were not ready for this disaster.
3 Earthquake in 2003 5,500 houses were damaged.
2,383 houses were inundated.
4 Floods in 2008 It damaged roads and buildings in the east Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk region.
It affected 43,300 people and destroyed many buildings.

Appendix 3

Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Recent major disasters
Year Disaster Killed Affected Damage

2005 Flood 0 25 000 7662 $
2004 Landslide 48 — —
2003 Earthquake 3 36626 —

Source: «EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net — Universite Catholique de Louvain — Brussels — Belgium»
Read this information and add it to the table above
1) Kazakhstan suffered severe damages from floods as a result of melting snow because of the sharp rise in temperature and heavy rains during May 1993. The flood caused much damage, ten lives were lost and about 30,000 people lost their homes. 5,500 houses were damaged.
2) On 21-22 February 2008, South Kazakhstan was flooded as a result of heavy rains and a sharp rise in air temperature, which led to fast melting of snow. In total 2,383 houses were inundated; 298 houses were destroyed, one person died and more than 13,000 people lost their homes.

Appendix 4
Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Vocabulary level 1 (less able learners)
1. Match English words with their Russian equivalents
2. Make a word list and memorize the words
English Equivalent Russian
1) Damage Полный, целый
2) Disaster Наводнение
3) Flood Землетрясение
4) Landslide Страдать
5) Earthquake Таять
6) Suffer Суровый
7) Severe Жертва
8) To melt Резкий подъем
9) Sharp rise Ущерб
10) To cause Длиться
11) Increase Поддержка
12) Total Оползень
13) To inundate Шкала Рихтера
14) To destroy Причинить, стать причиной
15) Magnitude Бедствие
16) Richter scale Магнитуда, сила
17) To affect Разрушать
18) To last Усиление, повышение
19) To support Затоплять
20) Victim Влиять

Appendix 5
Natural disasters in Kazakhstan
Vocabulary level 2 (more able learners)
1. Match English words with their Russian equivalents
2. Make a word list and memorize the words
English Equivalent Russian
1) Damage Ни …, ни …
2) Disaster Усиление, повышение
3) Flood Ущерб
4) Landslide Наводнение
5) Earthquake Оползень
6) Suffer Таять
7) Severe Разрушать
8) To melt Землетрясение
9) Sharp rise Страдать
10) To cause Причинить, стать причиной
11) Consequence Подготовиться
12) Neither … nor Бедствие
13) Increase Суровый
14) Total Последствие
15) To inundate Резкий подъем
16) To destroy Полный, целый
17) Magnitude Затоплять
18) Richter scale Магнитуда, сила
19) To affect Обеспечить
20) Devastation Поселение
21) To prepare Жертва
22) To last Длиться
23) Settlement Влиять
24) To provide Шкала Рихтера
25) Immediate Разруха
26) Support Поддержка
27) Victim Незамедлительный

Ағылшын тілі
Джулдиева Бибигуль Аскаровна, In the world of English idioms

Мақала авторы: Джулдиева Бибигуль Аскаровна
Жұмыс орны: Атырау қаласы И.Тайманов атындағы орта мектеп
Лауазымы: Ағылшын тілі пәнінің мұғалімі
Порталға жариялану мерзімі: 08.10.2018

In the world of English idioms

Content
1. Introduction
а) The aim of research work
b)History of the development of phraseology
c) The hypothesis
2. Main body
a) The definition of the term “idiom”

b) The origin of the word “idiom”
c) The Structure of Idioms
d) Idioms groups

3. Conclusion
4. Used literature

1. Introduction

I’ll start by saying that I got acquainted with idioms last year. I was greatly surprised when I learnt that idioms can’t be translated word by word, because their meanings depend on the meaning of the whole expression.

More over idioms are widely used in the oral speech, in the magazines’ articles, dialogues adding to the language bright and colorful shades of meaning. Obviously without knowing the meaning of the idiom you won’t be able to get the essence of the joke, because as a rule every joke is based on the variety of their meanings.
The English language is full of idioms (over 15,000). Native speakers of English use idioms all the time, often without realizing that they are doing so. This means that communication with native speakers of English can be quite a confusing experience.
We use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. We often use an image or symbol to describe something as clearly as possible and thus make our point as effectively as possible. For example, «in a nutshell» suggests the idea of having all the information contained within very few words. Idioms tend to be informal and are best used in spoken rather than written English.
The field for my research is the idiomatic similes. To my mind they are widely used in all spheres of our life and if you know their translation exactly you will use them just in the right place and time.

The aim of research work is to learn more about the world of the English idioms and attract my classmates’ attention to them, proving that using idioms in our speech makes it brighter and more intelligent.

Phraseology is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently.
The study of phraseological figurativeness is one of the main and perspective aspects of modern phraseology development. World vision through the phraseological images is specific for each nationality and can be observed as one of characteristics of language system specificity. In this case the great interest is presented with comparative phraseologisms as one of the more efficient means of figurativeness and expressiveness.
“The figurativeness as real peculiarity of various levels’ language units is manifested in their ability to call in our consciousness visual images, bright pictures on the basis of which we accept objectively real and definitely logical content of these units…”.
By phraseological figurativeness we mean “combined vision of two pictures” out of which the third one, new, appears absorbing all the necessary significant features of the previous ones. In other words, we may say about the image as ‘the form of new idea’s embodiment.
As the result of combinability of these features new structures are formed in our consciousness, so called ‘concepts’. The concept is “mental representation which determines the way things associate with each other and how they refer to definite categories… ”. The main role which concepts play in our thinking is categorization; it is the ability to group all the objects possessing definite similarities into corresponding classes.
No doubt, phraseologisms bear the “pictorial” character, among which we mark out the following types: “pictures”, concept-schemes, concept-frames and concept-sceneries.
1.2 History of the development of phraseology
Phraseology is a scholarly approach to a language which developed in the twentieth century. It took its start when Charles Bally’s notion of locutions
phraseologiques entered Russian lexicology and lexicography in the 1930s and 1940s and was subsequently developed in the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. From the late 1960s it established itself in (East) German linguistics but was also sporadically approached in English linguistics. The earliest English adaptations of phraseology are by Weinreich (1969) within the approach of transformational grammar, Arnold (1973), and Lipka (1992 [1974]). In Great Britain as well as other Western European countries, phraseology has steadily been developed over the last twenty years. The activities of the European Society of Phraseology (EUROPHRAS) and the European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX) with their regular conventions and publications attest to the prolific European interest in phraseology. Bibliographies of recent studies on English and general phraseology are included in Welte (1990) and specially collected in Cowie&Howarth (1996) whose bibliography is reproduced and continued on the internet and provides a rich source of the most recent publications in the field.
The hypothesis is that by using idioms you can distinguish a native speaker from the advanced learner and the beginner in studying the English language.
The methods of research used:
analysis
comparison
questionnair
2. Main part
The definition of the term “idiom”
An idiom is a set expression, the meaning of which is different from the literal meanings of its components. It refers to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. Idioms present a great variety of structures and combinations that are mostly unchangeable and often not logical and may not follow basic rules of grammar.
The Webster dictionary gives following definition: Idiom is an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent element as kick the bucket, hang one’s head etc., or from the general grammatical rules of language, as the table round for the round table, and which is not a constituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of English Idioms gives us definition of “idiom”. The word ‘idiom’ is used to describe the ‘special phrases’ that are an essential part of a language. Idioms may be ‘special’ in different ways: for example, the expression to kick the bucket seems to follow the normal rules of grammar, although we cannot say ‘kick a bucket’ or ‘kick the buckets’ , but it is impossible to guess that it means ‘to die’. Phrases like all right, on second thoughts, and same here, which are used in everyday English, and especially in spoken English, are ‘special’ because they are fixed units of language that clearly do not follow the normal rules of grammar.

Another formulation of “idiom (Dubrovin M., ‘Russian-English Idioms) is set phraseological units which meaning does not result from the meaning of its components.

The definition by Dean Curry is “the assigning of a new meaning to a group of words which already have their own meaning”. Idioms are informal in nature and although they appear in literature, they are not necessary considered to be “literary”. They are often colloquial, often slang, and through overuse can become cliches. Idioms may be adjectival, adverbial, verbal, or nominal. They also may take the form of traditional saying and proverbs.

The origin of the word “idiom”

In fact, the word idiom comes from the Greek root idio, meaning a unique signature. Thus, each language contains expressions that make no sense when translated literally into another tongue.

Some idioms of the «worldwide English» have first been seen in the works of writers like Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Lewis Carroll or even in the paperbacks of contemporary novelists. An example of Shakespearian quotation can be found in the following sentence:»As a social worker, you certainly see the seamy side of life.» Biblical references are also the source of many idioms. Sports terms, technical terms,

legal terms, military slang and even nautical expressions have found their way to the everyday use of English language.
Many idioms are similar to expressions in other languages and can be easy for a learner to understand. Other idioms come from older phrases which have changed over time.
To hold one’s horses means to stop and wait patiently for someone or something. It comes from a time when people rode horses and would have to hold their horses while waiting for someone or something.
«Hold your horses,» I said when my friend started to leave the store.
Other idioms come from such things as sports that are common in the United Kingdom or the United States and may require some special cultural knowledge to easily understand them.
To cover all of one’s bases means to thoroughly prepare for or deal with a situation. It comes from the American game of baseball where you must cover or protect the bases.
I tried to cover all of my bases when I went to the job interview.
What for do we use idioms?
1) For emphasis, e.g. The singer’s second album sank like a stone, [failed completely]
2) To agree with a previous speaker, e.g.
A: Did you notice how Lisa started listening when you said her name?
B: Yes, that certainly made her prick her ears up. [startlisteningcarefully]
3) To comment on people, e.g. Did you hear Tom has been invited for dinner with the prime minister? He’s certainly gone up in the world! [gained a better social position — or more money — than before]
4) To comment on a situation, e.g. The new finance minister wants to knock the economy into shape, [take action to get something into a good condition]
5) To make an anecdote more interesting, e.g. It was just one disaster after another today, a sort of domino effect, [when something, usually bad, happens and causes a series of other things to happen]
6) To catch the reader’s eye. Idioms — particularly those with strong images — are often used in headlines, advertising slogans and the names of small businesses. The writer may play with the idiom or make a pun (a joke involving a play on words) in order to create a special effect, e.g. a debt of dishonour instead of the usual debt of honour, [a debt that you owe someone for moral rather than financial reasons]
7) To indicate membership of a particular group, e.g. surfers drop in on someone, meaning to get on a wave another surfer is already on.
We will see and hear idioms in all sorts of speaking and writing. They are particularly common in everyday conversation and in popular journalism. For example, they are often found in magazine horoscopes, e.g. You’ll spend much of this week licking your wounds [trying to recover from a bad experience], or in problem pages, e.g. Do you think that my relationship has run its course? [come to a natural end] However, idioms are also used in more formal contexts, such as lectures, academic essays and business reports, e.g. It is hoped the regulations will open the door to better management, [let something new start].

Common metaphors in idioms. What is a metaphor?

Metaphors describe a person, object or situation by comparing it to something else with similar characteristics. They are often used in poetry and literature. In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, for example, Romeo says ‘Juliet is my sun’, suggesting that she is the most important force in his life, bringing him light and warmth.
Many idioms are based on metaphors. However, idioms are expressions that are used so frequently and are so fixed in the language that people often do not think about the metaphors behind them. The metaphors used in idioms are therefore much less original and thought-provoking than those used in literary contexts. People say, for example, ‘The new president was / took centre stage at the meeting’ [was the most important or noticeable thing or person], without thinking of the original image of a theatre.
Why idioms and metaphors are so important?
Firstly, they are important because they are very common. It is impossible to speak, read, or listen to English without meeting idiomatic language.
The second reason is that very often the metaphorical use of a word is more common today than its literal use. For example, we know that farmers plough their field, but we can plough through a long novel or report; we can plough on with our work; we can plough money into a business; profits can be ploughed back into a company; a lorry can plough into a row of parked cars. Using plough in its literal farming meaning is now much rarer than all its other non-literal uses.
Types of idioms
Binominals
Binomials are a type of idiom in which two words are joined by a conjunction (linking word), usually and. The order of the two words is fixed. For example, we always say black and white, NOT white and black: Managing climate change isn’t a black and white issue, [separate and clear]
The words can be:
1. synonyms (words which mean the same): Sara’s work is always very neat and tidy;
2. opposites: If you go for cheaper speakers, the sound quality may be a bit hit and miss, [sometimes good, sometimes had (informal)];
3. the same word: They finished the race neck and neck, [equal];
4. rhyming: Tables in the canteen take a lot of wear and tear, [damage through everyday use];
5. alliterative: After the match the players’ legs were black and blue, [very bruised];
6. joined by words other than and: The traffic was bumper to bumper all the way to the coast, [very heavy] Little by little, Vera gained the horse’s confidence, [gradually] The house must be worth a quarter of a million, give or take a few thousand, [plus or minus (informal)];
Trinomials are a similar type of idiom, in which three words are joined, e.g. I’ve looked here, there and everywhere for my glasses but can’t find them, [everywhere]
Euphemisms
Euphemisms are a type of idiom used to avoid saying words which may offend or be considered unpleasant. They are useful to learn, as they will help to communicate using language which is appropriate for the situation.
Euphemisms are used:
a) To talk about subjects which may upset or offend, such as death.
It was obvious he was not long for this world, but he never lost his sense of humour. [going to die soon]
To avoid using direct words for body functions
I’m just going to spend a penny. [use the toilet (UK public toilets used to charge a penny.)]
b) For humorous effect when telling anecdotes.
My boss was effing and blinding because he had lost a confidential report. [swearing (some common English swear words begin with f or b) (informal)]
c) By the media or political instructions to tone down unpleasant situations.
Many soldiers have made a supreme / ultimate sacrifice for their country. [died]
He died in a friendly fire accident. [killed by his own side, not by the enemy]

The Structure of Idioms
Most idioms are unique and fixed in their grammatical structure. The expression to sit on the fence cannot become to sit on a fence or to sit on the fences. However, there are many changes that can be made to an idiom.
Some of these changes result in a change in the grammatical structure that would generally be considered to be wrong. To be broken literally means that something is broken. The lamp is broken so I cannot easily read my book. To be broke is grammatically incorrect but it has the idiomatic meaning of to have no money. I am broke and I cannot go to a movie tonight.
There can also be changes in nouns, pronouns or in the verb tenses. I sat on the fence and did not give my opinion.Many people are sitting on the fence and do not want to give their opinion.
Adjectives and adverbs can also be added to an idiomatic phrase.
The politician has been sitting squarely in the middle of the fence since the election.
It is for these reasons that it is sometimes difficult to isolate the actual idiomatic expression and then find it in a dictionary of idioms.
As far as I know there are different ways how to render the essence of the idioms, for example: selecting the Russian equivalents or descriptive translation. For me, it’s easier to remember the meaning of the idiom if I manage to find the proper and colorful equivalent.

Idioms groups
I continued to do my research work with dividing theidioms into the groups. I decided to choose the idioms that seemed to be the most interesting for learning and using in my study of the English language. I looked through some dictionaries of the idioms and set-expressions.

The first group of idioms I picked up ispeople’s character. We live in the society where each person estimates other people and their behavior, traits of character and expresses his opinion. Here are some descriptions which characterize me, you, your friends and people who are around us.

Ball of fire: You shouldn’t be panic when somebody says that you are a ball of fire. You won’t burn. This person means that you are very energetic.

Ex.:Sally is a real ball of fire. She works late every night.

Full of beans: If your friend says that he is full of beans. It doesn’t mean that he has eaten many beans today, he means that he has a good mood.

Ex.:The head of the company was full of beans after he was informed that his company won the tender.

Be all thumbs: If somebody says that you are all thumbs it means that you are very awkward.

Ex.: — Hey! You are pouring my coffee on the table!
— Oh, I’m so sorry! I have been all thumbs today.

Move up in the world: If somebody moves up in the world it means that he has become a successful person.
Ex.:The young man is working hard and he is moving up in the world.

The second group istheidioms about the time. In the modern English language there are many idiomatic phrases that help people to explain an abstract meaningof the time easily.

Against the clock: This phrase means that the time “works against you”, and you feel the lack of it for fulfillment of some affairs.

Ex.: “Hurry up!You are working against the clock! We have very little time to do it”.

Like clock work: This phrase describes regular definite events.

Ex.:“He is as regular as clockwork in his habits – he goes to the bank every Friday”.

Not born yesterday: We say this idiom when we want to show that it is difficult to deceive us.

Ex.:“This car has a lot of faults. You must think I was born yesterday if you expected me to buy this car”.

Time of your life: Somebody says it that when he enjoys what he does, when he has a good time.

Ex.:“The children were tired out when they arrived home – they’d had the time of their lives playing in the mud, without their parents there to tell them to keep clean”.

With a snap of the fingers: If you manage to do something as soon as you click your fingers, and it comes out in moment, very quickly.

Ex.: If you could snap your fingers and immediately have this skill, which would you choose:
1. Fluency in every European language?
2. Or fluency in Chinese?

The third group isthe idioms with religious ideas. Faith is something that helps people to live. And it isn’t extraordinary that in our speech there are phrase about this part of our live.

Come hell or high water: When something must certainly happen, this event will happen even if flood starts or hell falls. In this case English use this idiom.

Ex.: Finish the project come hell or high water!

Meet me at the airport come hell or high water!

Sing form the same hymn sheet: This idiom means that people say the same things, having the same points of view.

Ex.:All political parties sing from the same hymn sheet.

Ninth circle of hell: In the Dante’s Aligere’s work “God’s comedy” in the Ninth circle of hell the main character met the most terrible sinner, and saw the most horrible punishments which were given to them. That’s why when something is very bad it is the ninth circle of hell.

Ex.: Our politics in economics is the ninth circle of hell.

Cold day in hell: Cold day in hell happens once an eternity. Therefore when we say that something will happen on a cold day in hell it means that it will never happen.

Ex.: — When will you pass your exam?

— On a cold day in hell!

The fourth group isbusiness idioms.In this group there are idioms which you can use when you speak with your foreign business partners or when you tell about your firm.

Bad egg: Bag egg is a person that you can’t trust. He is a swindler.

Ex.:This businessman has a reputation of a bad egg. Nobody wants to deal with him.

To be in the red: a person or a firm is in the red when they have debts. On the one hand red color is the color of danger, problem. And absence money is a suitable situation. On the other hand in England and America banks sent to debtors letters where “You have debts! Return them” which was written by red inks.

Ex.: The phone company found itself about three millions dollars in the red.

Hot potato: Have you ever held a hot potato in your hands? You don’t want to drop it but you can’t hold it any more because it’s too hot and you throw it from one hand to the other hand while it isn’t getting cold. Hot potato is a tickly question. It is hard and unpleasantly to deal with it.

Ex.: This new local small business law is a true hot potato in our region!

Fat cat: Fat cat is a person that has much money. But in this phrase there is disapproval shade of meaning. You can call somebody a fat cat if you don’t approve the way this person spends his money.

Ex.:The owner of this company decided to sponsor “LDPR”. What a fat cat!

The fifth group isthe idioms about the computers. Nowadays we can’t imagine our life without it. That’s why here are some idioms which are connected with computers.

All hardware sucks: This phrase means that all computer system is disable to fulfill your orders.

Ex.: I’m afraid that there is nothing to do else, because your all hardware sucks.

Blue screen of death: Blue screen of death describes the situation when all computer screen became blue and many words, symbols and letters appear on it which you can’t understand. They advise you to restart the computer.

Ex.:Running this program always ends by a Blue screen of death.

Hang: If your computer hangs, it means that all system doesn’t reply any commands

Ex.: I can’t connect the net, because my comp hangs again and again!

Big red switch: There is really big switch on many computer blocks but even if it is small it is called a big red switch in order to make emphasis on the fact that switching on it, the complex system, I mean a computer, begins to work.
Ex.:Don’t panic when having a blue screen of death, just push a Big Red Switch!
The most interesting group for me is comparative idioms. In order to make them we must use the construction as…as. I like this group because there are very funny. For example, when you want to say that you are very hungry you can say that you are as hungry as a hunter, etc.
As easy as pie: very easy.

«I thought you said this was a difficult problem. It isn’t. In fact, it’s as easy as pie.»

As hungry as a hunter: very hungry.

I haven’t eaten anything all day that’s why I am as hungry as a hunter.

As good as gold: very good.

This boy helped me very much. He is as good as gold.

As red as a beetroot: very red

Now Ann’s face is as red as a beetroot because she has lied.

As strong as an ox: very strong.

I think that this man does sports because he is as strong as an ox.

Different linguists group idioms in different ways. For example, I divide them like this:
1) Animal Idioms
2) Plants Idioms
3) Fruits and vegetables Idioms
4) Colour Idioms
5) Body Idioms
6) Food Idioms
7) Feelling and actions Idioms

Animal Idioms

Like a horse It means : to work hard
As a bee It means : about very busy man
As brave as a lio It means : about very brave man
Chicken It means : a coward man
Eagle eyesIt means : someone who has eagle eyes
To work like a dog – работатьусердно
Abookworm – книжный червь ( оченьлюбит читать)
Chicken — трус
Acopycat – человек, который подражает ( нетсвоего мнения)
Anearlybird – человек, который везде самый первый
Plants Idioms

As fresh as a daisy- fresh, healthy man
As fresh as a rose- about beautiful man
Shake like a leaf-to be afraid, tremble as a leaf
To go around the bush-avoid giving a clear answer
As hot as a pepper- very spicy

Fruits and vegetables Idioms
To buy a lemon- to buy something useless or defective
As cool as a cucumber-cool headed man in the face of danger or difficulty
Couch potato-a lazy person, watching TV
Bad apple- criminal, trouble maker
Sour grapes-pretending to not want something
Lemon law- protect people from defective food
The apple of one’s eye – любимыйчеловек
Go bananas – сходитьсума

Colour Idioms

Once in a blue moon- in early days
A heart of gold- a very kind and good man
To have green fingers-he is a good gardener
As white as a sheet- to afraid something
To born with a silver spoon in his mouth-very lucky man
A dark horse- nobody know much about him
Out of the blue –неожиданно
In the red – бытьвдолгу
Thegreenlight – разрешение для чего-то
Intheblack – при деньгах, богатый

Body Idioms

I let my hair down-to have a rest
An old head on young shoulder- he is too young but wise and clever
It costs an arm and a leg-it’s very expensive
Break one’s heart- to do suffer to somebody
To bite one’s tongue- stop talking
To zip the lip- to keep silence
Food Idioms
A big cheese- an important person, a leader
A bad egg- a bad person to be avoid
Cry over spilt milk- to cry about something that has already happened
Bread and butter- basic needs of life
Piece of cake- that you consider it to be very easy
Like a fish out of water- to be uncomfortable situation

Feelling and actions Idioms
Fallin love-to love somebody
A yes man- the man who listen everybody
An early bird- the man will be the first everywhere
A man of means-to be a very rich
At first sight- the first impression of the man
A man of his word — aperson who keeps promises
TimeIdioms
Likeclockwork – делать все в одно время
Notbornyesterday – трудно обмануть кого-то( не вчера родился)
With a snap of the fingers – оченьбыстро
High time — пора
In no time — моментально
Tokilltime — бездельничать
Numbers Idioms
Sixthsense – уметь догадываться ( иметь шестое чувство)
At first sight – первоевпечатление
Of two minds — нерешительный
In seventh heaven – оченьсчастливый
«Man and his characteristic features»

Balloffire – очень энергичный человек.
Fullofbеаns – быть в хорошем настроении
Move up in the world – бытьуспешнымчеловеком
A man of means – богатыйчеловек
Tobeshorthanded – нуждающийся в помощи
Tozipthelip – не разговаривать
Tostretchthetruth – преувеличивать
Tohaveagreenthumb – иметь способность к выращиванию растений
Many teachers of English like to group idioms in alphabetic order.
The site www.learn-english-today.com put them in such a way:

Negotiations
Anger-irritation
Employment — Jobs
Number Idioms
Animal & bird Idioms
Enthusiasm-impatience
Problems — difficulties
Anxiety — fear
Feelings-emotions
Relationships
Arguments-disagreements
Food Idioms
Safety — danger
Authority — power
Frankness — Sincerity
Secrets — indiscretion
Behaviour idioms
Fun-enjoyment
Shopping
Body idioms
Happiness — Sadness
Situations
Business — Work Idioms
Health Idioms
Speed — rapidity
Choices — Options
Hesitation — Indecision
Sports Idioms
Clothes Idioms
Honesty — dishonesty
Success-failure
Colour idioms
Intelligence-understanding
Suitability
Communication
Law & Order
Surprise-disbelief
Comparisons-similitude
Madness — Insanity
Thoughts-ideas
Consequences-effects
Memory — Remembering
Time idioms
Descriptions of people
Mistakes-errors
Travel-transport
Descriptions — places-things
Money Idioms
Weather-atmosphere
d) Investigation
Last year I learnt about the idioms at my English lessons at school. My teacher recommended me to spend more time investigating this field of the language.
It was interesting for me to know how many idioms the pupils of 9th – 11th forms know. I handed the questionnaires to the students of our school. It appeared that they know just a few of them, some students know more than ten idioms and the others know less than 10 or even don’t know idioms at all. After that I asked the pupils how often they use idioms in their dialogues or situations. And it appeared that they use them seldom or don’t use them at all. Then I asked pupils if they think that idioms enrich the English language and the most of them answered that they have no idea about it.

So I decided to make the list of idioms used frequently by the native speakers and group them according to the meaning.

These are the questions I asked my classmates, schoolmates, friends and acquaintances. I prepared multiple-choice questionnaire.

1. How many idioms do you know?

• I don’t know any idioms.
• I know less than 10 idioms.
• I know 10 – 30 idioms.
• I know more than 30 idioms.
• I know more than 50 idioms.

2. How often do use idioms?
• I don’t use idioms.
• I seldom use idioms.
• I often use idioms.

3. Do you think that idioms adorn English language?

• Yes, I do. To my mind idioms adorn English language.
• No, I don’t. In my opinion idioms don’t adorn English language.
• I don’t know.

I wanted to learn how many idioms students of 9th-11th forms know. I asked pupils in our school

How many idioms
do you know?

Then I wanted to learn how often they used idioms.

How often do you use idioms?

After that I wanted to learn if people thought that idioms enrich the English language?

Do you think that idioms enrich
the English language?

Conclusion

English is a language particularly rich in idioms — those modes of expression peculiar to a language (or dialect) which frequently defy logical and grammatical rules. Without idioms English would lose much of its variety and humor both in speech and writing.
Idioms can be quite clear (in general; come out; at first; the root of all evil), or pretty unclear (on end; pack it in; high and low; hard cash). Some idioms have proper names in them (a Jack of all trades; Uncle Sam), some other idioms are comparisons (as clear as a bell; as the crow flies). Proverbs and sayings are idioms, too (every cloud has a silver lining; still waters run deep).
For my work I have chosen useful idioms that native speakers use frequently in their everyday life. These idioms are accepted as part of everyday speech and undoubtedly are of great practical value to you. Many other idioms, though they are often interesting and colorful, are not that necessary in your everyday conversational English.

I think the fact that a person possesses a good vocabulary does not mean that he sounds like a native speaker. The mentality of a nation is expressed not only in grammatically correct sentences but in а variety of phrases that depict peculiarities of history and culture.

I think that I can use many of inter idioms in my speech. I like them.

So to be an interesting interlocutor you should acquire the idioms that make speech lively and bright.

The list of the used literature

1. Richard A. Spears, “American Idioms Dictionary”.
2. Dubrovin M., «Russian-English Idioms», Moskow, “Prosveshcheniye”,1995
3. Dean Curry “Illustration American idioms”, published by The Materials Branch English Language Programs Division United States Information Agency, Washington, 1994.
4. “Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of English Idioms”, edited by Helen Warren, Oxford University Press, 1994
5. M. J. Murphy “ Test yourself on English idioms”, Moskow, 1968
6. Richard A. Spears “Essential American Idioms”, dictionary
7. James Rogers “The dictionary of cliches”
8. V. H.Collins“ A book of English Idioms”
9. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms, Longman Group limited, 1979
10. Roges G. The dictionary of Cliches.New York. 1985
11. Spears Richard A. Essential American Idioms. National textbook company. 1991

Тезис
Тақырыбы: «Ағылшын идиома әлемінде»
Автор:Түсіпқалиева Гүлфайруз
Сынып: 10 а
Жетекшісі: Джулдиева Б.А ағылшын тілі пәнінің мұғалімі, «И.Тайманов атындағы орта мектеп»
Ғылыми жетекшісі: Атырау қаласы Халел Досмұхамедов атындағы педагогикалық университеті Капакова Алтын Джумагазиевна
Секция: ағылшын тілі
Өзектілігі:Кез келген ұлттың идиомасында адам даналығы, рухы мен тәжірибесі жинақталған. Сондықтан, фразеологизмдерді білу, тілді үйрену ғана емес, сонымен қатар әдеттер мен салт-дәстүр, дүниетаным мен адамдардың көзқарас жолдарын жақсы түсінуге, ойлау тәсілін дамытуға көмектеседі.
Мақсаты :Зерттеу және ағылшын тілі фразеологиясын талдау, сондай-ақ фразеология теориясының негізгі түсініктерін жүйелеу, шетел тілін жақсы түсінуге ықпал ету.Оқушылардың идиомалық өрнектерді пайдалану құндылығын анықтау.
Міндеттері: 1.Фразеологизмдердің мәнін зерттеу
2. Әр түрлі тақырыптар бойынша фразеологизмдердің жіктелуін анықтау.
3. Оқушылардың идиомаларды пайдалануға назарын аудару.
4. Зерттелген материалды жүйелеу және талдау
Зерттеу бөлімі: ағылшын фразеологиясы (фразеологизмдердің) ұқсастықтар мен айырмашылықтары.
Жаңалығы:Бұл жұмыс ағылшын тілі сабақтарында оны пайдалануға мүмкіндік береді пайдалы және қызықты тақырыптар болмақ
Ұсыныс: Жалпы білім беретін мектептің оқу бағдарламасы тіл меңгерудің белгілі бір деңгейін қамтамасыз етеді. Лингвистиканың кейбір бағыттары лексикология, стилистика жеткіліксіз қамтамасыз етілген. Сіздің лексиканы тұрақты толықтыру қатар, сіз байсалды, оның сөйлеу тұрақты құрамаларынан байыту туралы алаңдатты керек екенін күмән жоқ — мақсатты тіл фразеологизмдердің
Қорытынды:Фразеологизмдердің басты мақсаты — тілгеарнайы айқындықпен, бірегей ерекшелік, нақтылық және бейнелілік береді.
Қолданылған әдебиеттердің тізімі:
1. Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. — М.: Международные отношения, 1996.
2. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
3. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Тезис
Тема: «В мире английских идиом»
Ф.И ученика: Класс:Тусипкалиева Гульфайруз, 10а класс «СШ.им.И.Тайманова»
Руководитель проекта:Джулдиева Бибигуль Аскаровна.учитель английского языка, «СШ.им.И.Тайманова»
Научный руководитель: Атырауский педагогический университет им Х.Досмухаммедова, доцент кафедры английского языка Капакова Алтын Джумагазиевна
Секция: английский язык
Актуальность: В идиомах любого народа сконцентрированы мудрость, дух и опыт народа. Поэтому знание идиом поможет не только в изучении языков, но и лучшему пониманию образа мыслей, привычек, традиций, мировоззрения и характера народа.
Цель:Иисследование и анализ фразеологизмов английского языка,систематизация основных понятий теории фразеологии, способствующих более глубокому изучению иностранного языка.Определить значение употребления фразеологических выражений в устной речи школьников.
Задачи:1. Изучить значения идиом.
2. Выявить классификацию идиом по разным темам.
3. Привлечь одноклассников к употреблению идиом в речи.
4. Систематизировать и анализировать изученный материал
Исследовательская часть: сходства и различия фразеологизмов (идиом) английского языка.
Новизна: данная работа будет полезна и интересна тем, что позволит учащимся нашей школы активно использовать ее на уроках английского языка
Предложение:Учебная программа общеобразовательной школы дает определенный уровень знаний по языку. Но недостаточно изучаются некоторые области языкознания, лексикологии, стилистики. Не вызывает сомнения, что помимо регулярного пополнения словарного запаса, нужно самым серьезным образом заботиться об обогащении своей речи устойчивыми словосочетаниями – идиомами изучаемого языка
Вывод: Таким образом, я сделала вывод, что основное назначение идиом — придание речи особой выразительности, неповторимого своеобразия, меткости и образности.
Список используемой литературы:
4. Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. — М.: Международные отношения, 1996.
5. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
6. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Thesis

Theme: “In theworld of English idioms”
Athor: Tusipkalieva G, 10th form pupil of the secondary school by I.Taimanova.
Supervisor: the teacher of English language, Dzhuldieva B.A. secondary school by I.Taimanova
Science supervisor: Atyrau Pedagogical University named by Kh.Dosmukhamedova, pedagogical science of English Kapakova A.Zh
Section: English language
Topicality:In the idiom of any nation concentrated wisdom, spirit and experience of the people. Therefore, knowledge of idioms will help not only in language learning, but also a better understanding of ways of thinking, habits, traditions, outlook and character of the people.
Aim: Research and analysis of phraseology in English, also the systematization of the basic concepts of the theory of phraseology, promoting a better understanding of a foreign language. Determine the value of the use of idiomatic expressions in speech students.
Objectives:
1. To study the value of idioms.
2. Identify the classification of idioms on different topics.
3.Attract classmates to use idioms in their speech.
4. To organize and analyze the studied material
Research part:similarities and differences of phraseology (idioms) English.
Novelty:This work will be useful and interesting topics that will allow students to our school to actively use it for English lessons
Conclusion:So I concluded that the main purpose of idioms — giving special expressiveness of speech, unique originality, accuracy and imagery.
Suggestion:The curriculum of a comprehensive school provides a certain level of knowledge of the language. There is no doubt that in addition to regular replenishment of your vocabulary, you need to seriously worry about the enrichment of his speech stable combinations — the target language idioms
The used literature:
7. Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. — М.: Международные отношения, 1996.
8. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. L., 1981.
9. Makkai,A. Idiom Structure in English, — The Hague, 1987

Рецензия на научно-исследовательскую работу «В мире английских идиом»
Тусипкалиевой Гульфайруз

Научно-исследовательская работа «В мире английских идиом» Тусипкалиевой Гульфайруз. Гульфайруз занимается идиомами как одним из важных способов в изучении языков, но и лучшему пониманию образа мыслей, привычек, традиций, мировоззрения и характера народа. Автор изучила более 50 идиом,
их специфические черты, которые на удивление схожи со своими русскими аналогами.

В первой части статьи рассматриваются основные вопросы по данной теме, и включает в себя обзор различных научных подходов в изучении основных фразеологических выражений английского языка, формирование и образование идиом и основы дальнейшего анализа и классификации.

Вторая часть статьи имеет дело с анализами и классификацией идиом. Каждая часть исследовательской работы отражает глубокое понимание теории автора и ее собственные взгляды по данному вопросу. Значение данной работы состоит из смыслового и структурного анализа и классификации многих идиом. Исследователь пришел к основным принципам классификации идиом в соответствии с определенными частями речи, в соответствии с семантическими полями. Самой распространенной классификацией английских фра¬зеологических единиц является тематическая.

Автор использовал традиционный описательный метод и метод критического и статистического анализа.

Научно-исследовательская работа является логически хорошо организованной. Она имеет полезную информацию и и свежий подход к теме и отвечает всем требованиям исследовательской работы этого уровня. Научно-исследовательская работа заслуживает отличную оценку.

Рецензент Капакова А.Д

Reviewerontheresearchpaper»In the world of English idioms»
by Tusipkalieva Gulfairuz
Research work «In the world of English idioms»Tusipkalieva Gulfairuz.Gulfairuz engaged idioms as one of the important ways in language learning, but also a better understanding of ways of thinking, habits, traditions, outlook and character of the people. The author has studied more than 50 idiomstheir specific features, which are surprisingly similar to their Russian counterparts.
In the first part of the article discusses the main issues on the topic, and includes an overview of different scientific approaches in the study of basic idiomatic expressions of the English language, the formation and the formation of idioms and a basis for further analysis and classification.
The second part of the article deals with the analysis and classification of idioms. Each part of the research work reflects a deep understanding of the theory of the author and her own views on the matter. The value of this work consists of semantic and structural analysis and classification of many idioms. The investigator came to the basic principles of idioms classification in accordance with certain parts of speech, in accordance with semantic fields. The most common classification of English fra¬zeologicheskih is thematic units.
The author has used traditional descriptive method and the critical and statistical analysis.
Research work is well organized logically. It has useful information and fresh approach to the topic and meets all the requirements of research paper at this level. The research paper deserves an excellent mark.

Reviewer Kapakova A.D

«Ағылшын идиома әлемінде»тақырыбындағы Түсіпқалиева Гүлфайруздың
ғылыми-зерттеу жұмысына пікір.

Түсіпқалиева Гүлфайруздың «Ағылшын идиома әлемінде» тақырыбындағы
ғылыми-зерттеу жұмысы. Фразеологизмдердің тілгеарнайы айқындықпен, бірегей ерекшелік, нақтылық және бейнелілік беретіні туралы айту.
Автор елуден аса идиомалардың өзіндік қолдану тәсілін лингвистикалық құрылымда зерттеп талдады.
Жұмыстың бірінші бөлімінде тақырып бойынша негізгі мәселелерді талқылайды және ағылшын тілі, қалыптастыру және фразеологизмдердің қалыптасуы мен одан әрі талдау және жіктеу үшін негіз негізгі идиомалық өрнектерді зерттеу әр түрлі ғылыми көзқарастарды шолуын қамтиды.
Жұмыстың екінші бөлімінде фразеологизмдердің классификация тобы анықталып, бұл жұмыста автор терең теориялық түсініктеме беріп, осы тақырып бойынша өз көзқарасын баяндайды
Бұл жұмыстың мақсаты зерттеу және ағылшын тілі идиомаларына мән бере отырып талдау. Зерттеуші сондай-ақ фразеология теориясының негізгі түсініктерін зерттеген, шығармашылық және статистикалық анализ жасаған.
Зеттеу жұмысы логикалық тұрғыда дұрыс жолға қойылған, ұйымдастырылған. Ол пайдалы мәлімет және тың тақырып болып табылады. Бұл жұмысты өте жақсы жасалған деп есептеймін.

Пікір жазушы: Капакова А.Д