Y.ALTYNSARINNIN' AG'ARTY'SHYLYQ QYZMETININ' PSIHOLOGIIALYQ NEGIZI

Pedagogika
Jailay'baeva Indira Jy'batkanovna, Y.ALTYNSARINNIN' AG'ARTY'SHYLYQ QYZMETININ' PSIHOLOGIIALYQ NEGIZI

Maqala avtory: Jailay'baeva Indira Jy'batkanovna
Jumys orny: Y.Altynsarin atyndag'y Ry'dnyi a'ley'mettik -gy'manitarlyq kolledji
Lay'azymy: arnaiy pa'nderdin' oqyty'shysy
Portalg'a jariialany' merzimi: 08.01.2018


Ahmettei alyp, Mirjaqyptai talantty tulg'alar du'nie esigin ashqan kieli Torg'ai topyrag'ynyn' maqtan tutar uldarynyn' biri de biregei qaran'g'y qazaq dalasyna ry'hani sa'y'le shasha bilip, halyqty bilim aly'g'a shaqyrg'an , ju'reginde jiger oty bar urpaqty arman etken uly ag'arty'shy Y.Altynsarin. Onyn' qazaq balalar a'debietinin' atasy, aqyn, эtnograf, qazaq alfavitin jasay'shy jan'ashyl pedagog ,qazaq tilindegi alg'ashqy oqy'lyqtyn' negizin qalay'shy ekendigin , mektep tabaldyryg'yn alg'ash attag'an oqy'shydan bastap , eseiip , egde tartqan qarttarymyzdyn' da biletini aidan anyq. Altynsarinnyn' o'z halqyn oqy'g'a, o'nerge u'ndey'i, nadandyqqa, zulymdyqqa qarsy shyg'y'y, sol kezdegi a'ley'met o'mirindegi ten'sizdiktin' betin ashyp, o'mir shyndyg'yn ko'rsety'i, jastardy jaqsylyqqa, adamgershilikke ta'rbieley'i onyn' shyg'armashylyg'ynyn' negizgi arqay'y desek, sonymen qatar qazaqtyn' qazirgi erjetken proza janrynyn' ja'ne balalar a'debietinin' de en' alg'ashqy negizin saly'shysy boldy. Ybyrai Altynsarin – jazba a'debietimizdin' to'rinen berik oryn alatyn pedagog-jazy'shy. Ultynyn' uly ustazy –bar sanaly g'umyryn ty'g'an halqyn o'ner-bilimdi, jan'a zamannyn' o'rkenietti,ma'denietti elderdin' qataryna qosy' jolyna arnag'an ko'rnekti tulg'a. Ol o'zinin' pedagogtik, ag'arty'shylyq, aqyn-jazy'shylyq tarihi qyzmeti men talantyn , u'mit ku'ttirer jas urpaqty oqytyp , sol zamannyn' ozyq g'ylymymen qary'landyry'g'a belsene at salysqan. Uly ag'arty'shynyn' o'mir joly men halqyna sin'irgen adal qyzmeti men ry'hani shyg'armashylyg'y jaily qalamy ju'irik ,ozyq oily g'alymdar jete tanysyp ,zerdege tu'iip zerttep ju'rgen jaiy bar. Mysaly, Ken'es da'y'irinde de Y.Altynsarinnyn' o'mirbaiany, onyn' ag'arty'shylyq jolyndag'y jumystary, jazy'shylyg'y, pedagogtik en'bekteri, a'r ma'selege ko'zqarastary jaily jazylg'an maqala, tanystyry', zerttey'ler ko'p: M.A'y'ezov, S.Muqanov, M.Joldybaev, G'.Tog'janov, A'.Qon'yratbaev, T.Ta'jibaev, B.Su'leimenov, Q.Jarmag'ambetov, tag'y basqalardyn' en'bekteri bar. Altynsaring'a a'r jag'ynan kelip, ko'ptegen bag'aly pikirler aitqan — professor A.F.Эfirov («Ybyrai Altynsarinnyn' pedagogikalyq qyzmeti», 1945 jyl)bolsa , al Altynsarinnyn' o'mirbaianyn, ag'arty'shylyq, pedagogtik oi-pikir, ko'zqarastaryn molyraq qamtyp, teren'irek zerttegen — pedagogikalyq g'ylymdardyn' kandidaty A'.Sydyqov boldy Onyn' «Pedagogiсheskaia ideia i prosvetitelstvo Ibraia Altynsarina» (1949j.) atty en'begi uly ag'arty'shynyn' ulylyg'yn asqaqtatyp , ta'rbielik ma'ni zor shyg'armalaryn tany'da qundy en'bekterdin' biri bolyp tabylady. Bul avtorlardyn' ekey'i de pedagogika g'ylymdarynyn' mamany. SHyndyg'ynda da atalmysh g'alymdardyn' zerttey'leri oqyrmandardyn' ko'n'ilin ay'dararlyq jaqsy en'bekter bolyp shyqty. Jalpy, g'ylymda uly ag'arty'shynyn' pedagogikalyq ko'zqarastary tolyg'ymen ashyldy dey'ge negiz bar. Biraq a'li ku'nge deiin az zerttelip kele jatqan –onyn' psihologiialyq ko'zqarastary jaily ma'sele.Bar o'mirin ag'arty' ta'lim ta'rbie salasyna arnag'an osy qyzmetti o'z o'mirinin' negizgi arqay'y dep oilag'an u'lken ju'rekti ustazdyn' adam janyn na'zik sezetin asa sezimtal psiholog bolg'andyg'y aidan anyq. A'itse de Y.Altynsarinnyn' psihologiialyq ko'zqarastary jaily zerttey' ju'rgizgen g'alymdar qatary sirek. Solardyn' qatarynan oq boiy ozyq turatyn ko'rnekti g'alym, pedagogika g'ylymdarynyn' doktory, professor, Qazaqstannyn' en'bek sin'irgen g'ylym ja'ne tehnika qairatkeri Jaryqbaev Qubyg'ul Bozaiuly boldy. Ol Alash qairatkerlerinin' psihologiialyq ja'ne pedagogikalyq muralary jo'ninde birqatar g'ylymi en'bekter jazg'an.Onyn' g'ylymi-zerttey' jumystarynyn' negizgi bag'yty:Qazaqstandagy psihologiialyq ja'ne pedagogikalyq oi-pikirlerdin' damy' tarihy,эtnopsihologiia ma'seleleri. Ol o'zinin' S.Qalievpen birge qurastyryp jazg'an «Qazaq ta'lim-ta'rbiesi» atty kitabynda Y. Altynsarinnyn' psihologiialyq ko'zqarastaryna ken'inen toqtalg'an bolatyn. Biraq Y.Altynsarin pshologiiadan arnaiy taqyryp zerttemegen, kerisinshe onyn' ta'rbielik ma'ni zor shyg'armalarynyn' astarynda psihologiialyq oidyn' tamyry teren'ge tartqan. A'sirese, bala ja'ne ony ta'rbieley' joldary, oqyty' protsesinin' psihologiialyq pedagogikalyq negizderi, ustaz ma'selesi, qog'amdyq psihologiia ma'seleleri siiaqty t.b jatqyzy'g'a bolady.Altynsarinnyn' aity'ynsha, adamnyn' sana sezimin negizinde ta'rbie bileidi de,onyn' jan-jaqty tulg'a bolyp qalyptasy'yna materialdyq o'mir jag'dailary emes,ag'arty'shylyq a'reketpen tyg'yz bailanysty ekenin an'g'artady. Onyn' bir g'ana «Bir y'ys maqta» degen a'n'gimesinin' ko'zdegen maqsaty jastardy en'beksu'igishtikke, uqyptylyqqa ta'rbieley' bolsa, al, «Asyl sho'p» degen a'n'gimesinin' mazmuny psihologiialyq tu'iinge negizdelgen. «Sabyr» termini psihologiialyq protsess bolyp tabylatyn eriktin' sapalarynyn' biri ustamdylyqqa sinonimdes bolyp keledi.O'mirde sabyrly bola bilgen adam , qandai jag'dai da bolmasyn ustamdylyq tanytsa , qai kez de de oilag'an armanyna, dittegen maqsatyn jetedi. [3,75-82b]
Psihologiialyq ma'nge toly ta'rbielik man'yzy zor a'n'gimelerinin' tag'y biri «Ay'ry'dan aiag'an ku'shtirek».Munda jaso'spiriminin' shydamdylyq,sabyrlylyq,imandylyq, adamgershilik syndy erik-jiger qasietteri ko'rkem tilmen baian etiledi.A'n'gime jelisinde abaisyzda bir balany arba qag'yp ketip, aiag'yn syndyrady.Bolg'an jag'daidy ko'zimen ko'rgen anasy qatty qapalanyp,esinen tanady. Anasynyn' jylap jatqanyn baiqag'an bala birden jylag'anyn qoiyp,tipti syng'an aiaqty salyp jatqannyn' o'zinde dymyn shyg'armaidy.Er jigitke ta'n shydamdylyq, sabyrlylyq, ustamdylyq tanyta bilgen jas balanyn' bul qylyg'y synyqshyny qairan qaldyrady. Synyqshy baladan: «aiag'yn' ay'yrmai ma, qabag'yn'dy da shytpaisyn' g'oi dep suraidy.Anasyna bildirtpei bala : «Ay'yrmaq tu'gil janym ko'zime ko'rinip tur,biraq menin' janymnyn' qinalg'anyn ko'rse,a'jem de qinalyp,ju'demesin dep shydap jatyrmyn»-depti. Kip-kishkentai bala tu'n uiqysyn to'rt bo'lip ta'rbielep o'sirgen anasynyn' qabag'yna esh kirbin' tu'spegenin qalap otyr. Ag'arty'shynyn' shag'yn g'ana a'n'gimede aitar oiy bala ju'reginin' an'g'arympaz, sezimtal ekendigimen erekshelep tur.
Y.Altynsarin a'n'gimelerinin' barlyg'y da balalardyn' jas erekshelikterin eskere otyryp jazylg'an. Tili jen'il, mazmuny tartymdy. A'n'gimelerdin' negizgi ko'zdegen maqsaty- ustaz ben ata-ana yntymaqtasa otyryp,balanyn' boiynda en' izgi qasietterdi qalyptastyry'. Sondyqtanda bolar, uly ag'arty'shy jaso'spirimderdin' teren' bilim men o'negeli ta'rbieni boig'a sin'iry'i ja'ne de aqyl oi belsendiligin arttyra otyryp, jan-du'niesin jaqsarty' mektep pen ata-ananyn' ortaq mindeti ekenin eskertedi.
Ol –man'dai termen ,adal en'bekpen kelgen en'bek g'ana o'nimdirek bolyp adamnyn' o'mirge degen ko'zqaras ko'kjiegin ken'eitip, onyn' boiynda kishipeiildilik,meiirimdilik, zerektik, a'deptilik ,jinaqtylyq, jomarttyq, shydamdylyq, tabandylyq syndy jaqsy qasietterdin' qalyptasy'yna o'zdiginshe a'seri bar ,sondyqtan ata-ana otbasynda balany kishkentai ku'ninen bastap ug'yndyryp ta'rbieley' qajettiligin basa eskertedi. Mysaly : »Qypshaq Seiitqul»taqyrybyndag'y a'n'gimesinde de aianbai en'bek etken adam g'ana,o'z muratyna jete alatynyn baian etken. Atalmysh a'n'gimesinde qazaq ay'ylynyn' en'beksu'igish ,otyz u'ili tobyrdyn' basshysy Seiitquldyn' aqyldylyg'y men tapqyrlyg'yn tamasha sy'rettegen. Ol adal en'bektin' na'tijesinde o'zine de, o'zgelerge de qol ushyn berip, qiyndyqtan shyg'ar joldy on'ynan izdestirip, o'zen-sy'ly Qabyrg'a degen jerge elin ko'shirip kelip qonystandyrady.Az y'aqytta halyqtyn' en'sesin ko'terip, maldy ay'ylg'a ainalady. Halyqtyn' turmys tirshiliginin' jaqsarg'anyn an'g'arg'andar oidan-qyrdan ko'ship kele bastaidy. So'itip tynymsyz en'bek , ustamdylyq pen shydamdylyq o'z jemisin berdi. Al, keiipkerdin' ag'asy urlyqtyn' jeteginde , aqyr aiag'ynda qolg'a tu'sip mert bolady. Ag'arty'shy o'z a'n'gimesinde « en'bek tu'bi jen'bek» degendei, qandai qiyndyq bolsa da o'z adal en'begimen u'lken jetistikterge jety'ge bolatynyna oqy'shysyn sendire bilgen. Ko'rkem a'n'gimenin' sheberi Y.Altynsarin didaktikalyq a'n'gimelerinde keiipkerlerinin' jan saraiyn, ka'sibi oilay' qabiletin ulttyq ry'hta sipattaidy. SHag'yn a'n'gimeler jastardy en'beksu'igishtikke,izgilikke,tapqyrlyq pen a'reketshildikke ,izdenimpazdylyqqa ,durys o'mir su're bily'ge ta'rbieley'ge negizdeidi. [2,45b ]
Mektep bilim bery'din' negizgi by'yny retinde man'yzdy qyzmet atqarady.Sondyqtan da bolar Y.Altynsarin ta'rbieshi ,ustaz , mug'alimdik o'ner jo'nindegi aitqandarynda da psihologiialyq tu'iinder az emes. Ol oqy' ta'rbie protsesinde mug'alim roline airyqsha man'yz berdi, mektep isinin' san salasyndag'y jetistikterdi mug'alimnin' bilimi men iskerligine ,bedeli men o'z qyzmetin jan ta'nimen su'ie bily'inde dep tu'sindi. Y.Altynsarin mug'alimderdin' oqyty' ta'silderin u'nemi jetildirip otyry'yn olardyn' pedagogikalyq ja'ne oqyty'shylyq ta'silderdi men'gery' qajettiligin basa aitty. Ultynyn' uly tulg'asy o'zinin' ustazdyq qyzmetine bailanysty qazaq jastaryn oqytyp ta'rbieley' ma'selesin en' basty ma'sele dep eseptei otyryp , adam ja'ne ony ta'rbieley' joldary, oqyty' protsesinin' psihologiialyq ,pedagogikalyq negizderi;ustaz ma'selesi, qog'amdyq psihologiia ma'selelerine qalam tartqan.Bilim bery' isinde ustazdar qay'ymy bala janyn durys tu'sine almai asyg'ys sheshim qabyldap jatady. Onyn' saldary oqy'shynyn' oqy'g'a degen qyzyg'y'shylyqtyn' bolmay'yna a'kep sog'ady .Osy oraida, ultynyn' uly tulg'asy «Oqy'shylardyn' tu'sinbey'shiligin oqyty'shylardyn' o'z kina'si dep bilmei, oqy'shylardyn' zer salmaitandyg'ynan dep biletin mundai oqyty'shylardyn' qatty adasatyny aitpai-aq tu'sinikti,-dep oryndy aita bilgen. Budan shyg'atyn qorytyndy mug'alimnin' a'r kez jadynda ju'retin ja'it bala ta'rbiesi, ult ta'rbiesi, sebebi bu'gingi mug'alim aldynda otyrg'an bilimdi, ta'rtipti bala , eldin' keler ku'ngi senimi men nurly bolashag'y. Qoryta kele ,shag'yn maqalada Y.Altynsarinnyn' psihologiialyq ko'zqarastaryn tolyq qarastyry' mu'mkin emes. Jalpy , aitylg'an oidyn tu'iini uly ag'arty'shynyn' kez-kelge janrdag'y en'bekterinin' astarynda psihologiialyq oidyn' bar ekendigin anyqtap bergendei.[1,15-20b ]
G'ylym u'zdiksiz damy' u'stinde. Osyg'an orai, XXI g' g'alymdary u'shin zerttey'ge turarlyq , qalammen qag'azg'a tu'siretin taqyryptar jeterlik Sonyn' biri Y.Altynsarinnyn' psihologiialyq ko'zqarastarynyn' o'zi bir to'be, ay'qymdy taqyryp .Ol endi y'aqyt enshisinde. Urpaq jalg'astyg'y degen osy bolar sira'!Qanshama jyldar, g'asyrlar tarlan tarihtyn' qoinay'yna ense de Ybyrai Altynsarin esimi esh umytylmaidy. Kerisinshe, onyn' tay' tulg'asy jyldar o'tken saiyn biiktei tu'sedi.

A'debietter tizimi:
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2. Tarihi tulg'alar. Tanymdyq — ko'pshilik basylym. Mektep jasyndag'y oqy'shylar men ko'pshilikke arnalg'an. Qurastyry'shy: Tog'ysbaev B. Sy'jikova A. – Almaty. “Almaty kitap baspasy”, 2009 ;
3. Derbisa'lin A'. Y., Ybyrai Altynsarin. O'miri men qyzmeti ty'raly, A., 1965;
4. Tajibaev T. Razvitie prosvesheniia i pedagogiсheskoi mysli v Kazahstane vo vtoroi polovine HIH veka, A.-A., 1958.
5. Orynbekov M.S.»Ejelgi qazaqtyn' du'nietanymy»A.1996j